The CIA and Military Mind Control Research
Building the Manchurian Candidate
A lecture by Dr. Colin Ross, 1997
Good morning, welcome to International Connection. It's a very special show this morning. This is the beginning of a journey we are about to take on this programme. A journey into a gruesome world of mind control experiments by government-financed doctors in Canada and the United States. Inhuman experiments performed on humans, children for the most part. For the next 8 months on the show we will be airing interviews with survivors of mind control experiments and ritual abuse, lectures and interviews with therapists, researchers, and writers who are dealing with the legacy of mind control.
Specifically we'll be looking at the documented history of U.S. CIA and military mind control experimental programs. Also the struggles of survivors to get compensation from the CIA and the Canadian government in particular govt-funded mind control experiments at McGill University under Dr. Ewen Cameron. We'll be hearing the accounts of survivors of horrific experiments involving electroshock, drugs, brain implants, sensory deprivation, psychic driving, forced sleep, ritual and sexual abuse. We'll also be discussing the military and intelligence uses of mind control including theft, assassination, and sexual blackmail using child victims. We'll be talking about the uses of creating MPD in people for mind control programming and its links to the MP effects of ritual abuse. We'll be discussing with therapists to talk about the effects of severe trauma, sexual abuse, recovered memories and the 'False Memory Syndrome'
Many people listening may be aware of Dr. Cameron's projects at the Allan Memorial Institute in Montreal but this wasn't the only location. The experimental projects were carried out all across Canada and of course in the United States.
The first segment of this radio series Mind Control in Canada features a lecture by Dr. Colin Ross to colleagues about the history of the U.S. CIA and military mind control programs. Dr. Ross is a Canadian psychiatrist specializing in MPD currently practicing in Texas. He has researched this subject for many years and is currently writing a book about mind control. He has obtained thousands of CIA documents through the Freedom of Information Act and through these documents, Dr. Ross is able to prove the US government has been using MPD and Manchurian Candidates operationally since WWII.. and it doesn't stop there.
When I systematically started looking into CIA military mind control, the more I looked, the more solid the reality of Mind Control became. Today I will prove to you, completely locked down, documented, proven, beyond dispute discussion that intelligence agencies have been creating Manchurian candidates and MPD for operational use since the Second World War. This is not a conspiracy theory. This is a fact. Now that's very amazing because if you took an opinion poll of all the psychiatrists in the American Psychiatric Association today-or you took the same poll five years ago -- 99.999% ... over 99% of the psychiatrists would say "it's fiction - well it’s not, it is 100% not!
I am going to talk about not just creating Manchurian candidates, but the whole network of mind control doctors that is involved in this and supports this-this kind of old boys' network that maintains all of this.
So there is something real peculiar about the whole story. It's a very strange story. It tells us that there is something going on in our culture and in the mental health field that is hidden and secret. This is another kind of incest secret in the field of psychiatry that all of these people who have been running psychiatry in the latter half of the 20th century are either directly or loosely connected to a whole huge universe of covert hidden secretly funded mind control research, and as I emphasized, that's a fact. Now why should we be talking about that at this conference? Well it's obvious. If in fact experimental MPD has been created and has been tight and hard and real enough for operational use by intelligence agencies for the last 50 years, then it is something of interest to the dissociative disorders field. When I combine the expert witness experience that I have had at clinically created iatrogenic DID using the techniques of destructive psychotherapy cults in the course of persuasion, when I take that expert witness evidence and see those cases created out of a base of no pre-existing DID and then I go to this CIA military mind control literature, my only possible conclusion is yes, you can create full tilt DID artificially from ground zero.
Also I have to conclude that you can create any degree of complexity, permutations of false memory that you want. There is absolutely no limit on the quantity, complexity, reality, congruence, plausibility of false memories that you can insert in somebody's mind-wittingly or unwittingly. So-they didn't tell me that in medical school. This is a little sub paradigm revolution in the DID field. There is a huge wealth of information, experimental information, clinical anecdotal information, and operational street smarts knowledge of DID that's been up and running and full tilt in the mental health field for 50 years now. This did not spring out of nowhere in 1980, and we are missing a ton of experimental research data that's still classified that bears directly on this false memory debate that is going on in our society now. And you will see some of the players in this whole scenario of interesting people.
The first point is that there are a lot of documented declassified mind control research programs that are completely objectively proven beyond a shadow of a doubt. I have a lot of this material and some I have on order. This is CIA now. Bluebird and Artichoke were two programs that ran from 1951-53 and I will read you some stuff from Artichoke in a minute. These were then rolled over into MKULTRA which ran from 1953 to 1963 and then there are 149 sub-projects. That was then administratively rolled over into MKSEARCH which ran until 1973. Contiguously with that, and in collaboration with Edgeware Arsenal, MKNAOMI which involved MKULTRA, ARTICHOKE and BLUEBIRD type research done abroad and nationally ran from 1953 to 1970.
This involves all kinds of hallucinogens, hypnosis and so on that I will go into in detail. STARGATE just recently declassified E.S.P., paranormal, remote viewing military uses of telekinesis type research that was done from an uncertain start date up until 1984. Bill Gates, former Director of the CIA on ABC's Dateline in December of 1995 said that it ran up until 1984. They had one of the academic contractors to STARGATE on the show and they had the man whose job was CIA oversight of military experimentation under STARGATE. So this really went on, they really used psychics operationally and they believed in it enough to keep spending millions of dollars on it for several decades probably. Now when you read all the Senate materials from the 1970's and you read all the existing literature, the claim of the intelligence community was that all this mind control research was stopped in 1973 due to Senate oversight and so on. One of the MKULTRA sub-projects is on the paranormal, esp and using esp for covert operations purposes. That element of MKULTRA didn't stop in 1973. We now know from the CIA itself that it ran on until 1984. So we know for a fact that at least that element of this mind control research program that was said to have stopped in 1973, continued to 1984. My position is that it is simply implausible that this stuff isn't ongoing up to the present.
Now we are going to give you a run-through of the institutions that were sites for MKULTRA research. In MKULTRA there were 149 different sub-projects and these were not in obscure little corners of the world. This is the American Psychological Association, this is the Butler Hospital Health Centre which is part of Harvard, Children's International Summer Village ... this is a charming place ... this is a project involving a study of children at an international summer camp aged 11 and the study of how children who don't share a common language communicate and in the CIA report it states that the investigator was unwitting of the fact that it was CIA funding and the purpose of the CIA in these 11 year olds was that they might possibly identify promising young foreign nationals for future use by the Agency. Columbia University, Cornell, Denver, Emory, Florida, George Washington, Harvard. This will give you a feel for who is involved in this stuff. Houston, Illinois, Indiana Universities, Johns Hopkins, Eli Lilly was the big supplier of LSD to the CIA. Those of you who can remember the sixties might remember the "House of the Rising Sun" by the British rock group, The Animals. They had a song called "The Girl Named Sandoz". Sandoz was the employer of Hoffman who discovered LSD in the forties, and Sandoz was the original supplier of LSD to the CIA and the military in the 1950's and they wanted a secure American supplier so they contracted with Eli Lilly to become the developer. University of Minnesota, New Jersey Reformatory, Bordentown in Tennessee ... Ohio, University of Pennsylvania, Penn State, Princeton, Stanford, a couple of universities in Texas, Wisconsin, the Bureau of Narcotics, a prison, a narcotics farm. So these contracts ... McGill, NIH, NIMH, National Philosophical Society ... everything and everybody gets in on the act a little.
So these were all of the major players in North American psychiatry and psychology who were receiving this kind of funding. Office of Naval Research. Worcester Foundation for experimental Biology ... all kinds of different agencies and groups. MKSEARCH was the one that MKULTRA was rolled into. It ran from 1963 to 1973. Again Bureau of Narcotics, New Jersey Neuropsychiatric which is also an MKULTRA site which I will talk about in more detail. Vacaville State Prison which you are going to hear a whole bunch about. Now BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE which were 1951-53 ... institutions there include the Bureau of Narcotics, Cornell, Eli Lilly again, NIH, Public Health Service, University of Minnesota ... you get the idea. Now what about the proven identity of some of the actual contractors? The terminology here is we've got the contractor and we've got the sub-project number and I have most of the sub contract files. Security status ... TS means Top Secret cleared, UW means unwitting because this money was usually put through a funding front . They would just think it was another foundation. Most of the people you haven't heard of like James Hamilton, Harold Abramson, Carl Pfeiffer, but you will hear more about them later today.
Some of these people might sound a little familiar ... Louis Jolyon West at UCLA, Ewen Cameron who was at McGill, he's been written about a lot, and yes this is Carl Rogers of Rogerian psychotherapy fame. He was actually a spook psychiatrist with top secret clearance who was on the Advisory Board of one of the funding fronts and received funding for psychotherapeutic research on schizophrenia. It's a very funny thing that Mr. Friendly Carl was in the network. Martin Orne, you will hear a lot about him.
These people were at University of Oklahoma. They were doing research on street gangs. Four of the MKULTRA sub-projects were on children and all of the investigators for those were UW unwitting. Martin Orne's top secret clearance status. Maitland Baldwin who did stuff on monkey brains. George White was a CIA career officer who constructed safe houses in San Francisco and New York where people were recruited in off the streets to have sex with prostitutes and were given LSD and other drugs without their knowing it. The rationale for this was that they were attempting to study reaction of unwitting subjects in civilian settings to mind control drugs. An alternative hypothesis to this was that they were actually testing Manchurian candidate prostitute performance.
Harold Wolff was at Cornell. Raymond Prince I have corresponded with. He was UW unwitting. He did research among the Aruba in Nigeria on their folk healing practices. R. Gordon Watson-I was a little bit unhappy to see him on the list, but relieved to see he was unwitting because I read a book of his called "SOMA: Divine Mushrooms of Immortality" ... a very interesting book on Fly Agrate which is the little red toadstool with the white flakes on it. The use of that by circumpolar shamans has a very interesting history. John Mulholland is actually a magician. When you go through these documents, all these names are whited out. You have to piece it together from here and there. It's a great big story trying to track it all down. Except they goofed it up. John Mulholland was not whited out once. When you get a file on one of these sub-projects, there is usually a page in there that has standardized wording about no individuals associated with this project are witting or so and so whose name is whited out has top secret clearance and is aware of agency involvement. There's somebody you have probably heard of. His name is B.F. Skinner. I am still doing some of the archival research to find out what his sub-project number is, and what his security status is but I would suspect it will turn out to be top secret.
Now I am going to jump to proving to you that MPD has been created by the CIA and the military since WWII. The first stop off point is at the back of your series of handouts there. It's a publication called "Science Digest, April 1971", the author is G.H. Estabrooks. The article is called "Hypnosis Comes of Age". When you go to page 48, I am going to read this out loud for the benefit of people listening to this on tape. He's now writing, in 1971, and says the following:
"One of the most fascinating but dangerous applications of hypnosis is its use in military intelligence. This is a field with which I am familiar through formulating guidelines for the techniques used by the United States in two world wars." (Ross: For those of you who are not history buffs, that means at least back to 1914.) "Communication in war is always a headache. Codes can be broken. A professional spy may or may not stay bought. Your own man may have unquestionable loyalty but his judgment is always open to question. The "hypnotic courier" on the other hand, provides a unique solution. I was involved in preparing many subjects for this work during World War II. One successful case involved an Army Service Corps Captain whom we'll call George Smith. Captain Smith had undergone months of training. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it. I had removed from him, by post-hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized. First I had the Service Corps call the captain to Washington and tell him they needed a report on the mechanical equipment of Division X headquartered in Tokyo. Smith was ordered to leave by jet next morning, pick up the report and return at once. These orders were given him in the waking state. Consciously, that was all he knew, and it was the story he gave his wife and friends. Then I put him under deep hypnosis, and gave him-orally-a vital message to be delivered directly on his arrival in Japan to a certain colonel-let's say his name was Brown-of military intelligence. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. This is "locking". I performed it by saying to the hypnotized Captain: 'Until further orders from me, only Colonel Brown and I can hypnotize you. We will use a signal phrase 'the moon is clear'. Whenever you hear this phrase from Brown or myself you will pass instantly into deep hypnosis.'
When Captain Smith re-awakened, he had no conscious memory of what happened in trance. All that he was aware of was that he must head for Tokyo to pick up a division report. On arrival there, Smith reported to Brown, who hypnotized him with the signal phrase. Under hypnosis, Smith delivered my message and received one to bring back. Awakened, he was given the division report and returned home by jet. There I hypnotized him once more with the signal phrase, and he spieled off Brown's answer that had been dutifully tucked away in his unconscious mind. The system is virtually foolproof. As exemplified by this case, the information literally was "locked" in Smith's unconscious for retrieval by the only two people who knew the combination. The subject had no conscious memory of what happened, so couldn't spill the beans. No one else could hypnotize him even if they might know the signal phrase. Not all applications of hypnotism to military intelligence are as tidy as that. Perhaps you have read 'The Three Faces of Eve'.
Operation Artichoke and Bluebird, CIA Mind Control research from 1951-53. I am going to read you some Artichoke and Bluebird documents that were obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. A lot of stuff is whited out, so I will just say blank whenever it is necessary to do so. To the Files. On 6th April, 1954, Tuesday, SI&H (Ross: I haven't figured out what SI is, H is hypnosis) Experimentation and Research was carried on in Building 13 with the following subjects present: Mrs. __ , in addition to Misses ______. ______ attended in a consultant capacity. The session opened with slow induction for all hands, and then a subsequent induction for Miss ____ to enable her to reconstruct a strange dream she had had the previous week. This was successful, although in the wake state she could remember no details. The major experiment of this evening was then conducted as follows.
Miss ____ was taken to Room 23 under full hypnosis and she was instructed by the writer that she would find a secret document in or on Mr. X at desk in his room. She was told that she was to conceal this document next to her person and then she was to return to Room 21, Operations Room, pour herself a drink of water which she would find on a bookcase, and then stretch out on the sofa, face down and go into a deep sleep. She was instructed she would not awaken under any circumstances. She was told she would only awaken if somebody whispered to her a specific code word and would recall nothing except sleeping on the couch. Miss ____ performed the entire test in exact as detail outlined above and had no subsequent memory whatsoever of any of this activity. During the experiment Miss ____ was taken to the same room and she was told that a person whom she had never seen had taken a secret document from the Agency. She was told that this person or suspected person had been given a drug and was unconscious on the sofa in Room 21. She was told she was to enter the room and find the document which would probably be on the person on the sofa. She was given specific instructions that she must locate the document.
She was told that if she found the document, she was to conceal it on her person and return to Room 23, sit in the chair, and go at once into a deep sleep. She was further told that she would have no memory other than falling asleep. Miss ____ complied in specific detail and immediately discovered the document in ____'s sweater sleeve. Miss ____ concealed the document on her person, returned to Room 23 and at once went into a deep sleep. Subsequently she was brought back into the Operations Room and she and _____ were awakened. The experiment was carried off successfully, particularly by _______ with entire amnesia of the work, and cannot even recall it under hypnosis. ____ however was able to remember a certain part, though some of her details seemed vague."
It's clearly creation of Manchurian candidates, there is no question whatsoever. This is now in operational use in the United States.
Now the following is not Manchurian candidates, but it's the use of sodium amytal and hypnosis for the creation of amnesia barriers and deliberate insertion of false memories. "To Director of Security Via Deputy Director of Security Via Chief Security Research Staff from _____. Subject: Report of Artichoke Operations 20-23 January 1955. Between Thursday 20 January and Sunday 23 January 1955, the Security Office Artichoke Team conducted a special operations _____. In the opinion of Team Members, in this case Officers of the _____, the Artichoke operation was successful. Details follow. It should be noted at this point that because these operations were the first Artichoke Operations undertaken in the USA, which is a violation of the CIA's Charter, the full names of those participating are omitted from this report and will not be revealed without consent of the Security Office. First names, titles, or pseudonyms will be used throughout this report. In view of the highly sensitive nature of the Artichoke techniques and in view of the fact that this was the first Artichoke operation carried out in the USA, the operation was conducted _______. This Safe House is far removed from surrounding neighbours, it is a large tract of land, and is thoroughly isolated. A limited, and security-cleared household staff maintain functions of the House and ____ by unwitting ______ Actual Artichoke operations as usual were carried out in a special area on the second floor of the House, and neither the household staff nor the _____ were permitted in the area during any of the processing.
SSD Division furnished one security officer during the entire period of the operation to act as special guard and to handle any unusual situations which arose during the operation. This guard is hereinafter referred to as ____ in this report. For a matter of record, it should be noted that the subject was not a confinement problem, and has been at all times fully cooperative. Guard detail was not present in connection with the subject, except in a general sense. Technical matters in the case were handled entirely by the TBPSD under the personal supervision of _____. Full tape recordings were made of the entire case, and tapes are to be turned over to the participating Division in the immediate future. It should be noted that during this particular operation, a special device was used in conjunction with the recording. This device, which is easily concealable, worked with remarkable efficiency and at no time during the entire recording was there any break due to technical failure. It should al so be noted that a complex two-way transmitting/receiving unit was again used in this Artichoke operation. Cover for the actual operation followed standard procedure. The subject was informed in general terms that before being sent for further work it was necessary that certain tests be made on him physically and psychologically as well as his. Hence a complete physical and sychological, psychiatric examination was acquired. Subject readily accepted this medical cover and the Artichoke technique was introduced easily and with the full consent of the subject.
The Case: Prior to the commencement of the actual Artichoke operation, a number of conferences had been held with the various participating personnel involved. All hands had been briefed and procedures had been worked out. A general time schedule was prepared and operating instructions for Artichoke were issued. On the afternoon of the 20th of January the subject and _______ They were met by ________ of the interested Division. Under a covert car subject was taken to the _____, arriving there at approximately 9:30 pm. Prior to this, that is during the day of 20th of January, the technical equipment had been checked out and installed, and _____ had arrived at the covert area at approximately 8 pm for operational purposes. By previous arrangement the _____ was picked up by _____ at approximately 9:30 pm. _____ was brought to the Safe House at 10:50 pm. Shortly after the arrival of ____, a preliminary conference began at approximately 11:10 pm with the subject.
Interrogation lasted until 12:25 am when all except the subject ____ left the Operations Room. Tape recording was cut off at this time. As a result of this interview _____ stated that subject's mental and physical condition was good and noted that the pulse (Ross: which is actually the blood pressure) at 12:25 am was 120/80 (Ross: so these guys are not total wizards). The doctor also commented he had noticed an increased amount of talk after a drink of whiskey and although there was some nervousness present, it was not excessive. _____ stated he had given subject two grams of anibarbitol to the subject to assist him to sleep and it was later confirmed the subject had taken this prior to going to sleep.
Because of the successful penetration and because of the extremely high quality of information which the subject was obtaining, the case is regarded as most sensitive and important by the participating Division. Since the subject's information had been checked and cross-checked many times by the Operating Division's Case Officers, and the Division was of the uniform opinion that the subject was fully legitimate and fully cooperating with our efforts; they however desired Artichoke to give added assurance to the subject's story and to help them determine absolute suitability for further use of the subject in his work. For the record, it should be noted that no polygraph techniques had been applied in this case, since a physical examination by _____ apparently a cleared physician had indicated too much nervousness for successful polygraph testing. Following established patterns using medical cover as explained above, the ____ began a physical and psychological examination at 10 am on the morning of Friday 21 January. This examination continued until l pm when an hour was taken for lunch. At 2 pm _____ again continued the general examination of the subject with _____ being used, as before lunch, as interpreter. This examination lasted until 3 pm when the ____ concluded the first medical session and a portable polygraph was taken in by ____ for the purpose of polygraph testing. On Saturday 22 January 1955 subject had breakfast with ____. At 9:35 am ____ arrived at the Safe House and at 9:45 am ____ arrived. At 10:35 am the subject again, with ____ acting as interpreter, was examined briefly by Dr. ______. At 10:50 am _____ left the operations area and began polygraph testing. This examination lasted until 12:37 pm when it was concluded.
Subject was taken into the Special Operations Room with only the ____ present and at 2:36 pm the first intravenous infusion began. Slow injections were continued until 2:46 pm when the ____ signaled that the subject was fully affected by the chemicals and at this time special recording and transmitting equipment was brought into the Operations Room. Also at this time ____ left the room and ____ entered. From this point until approximately 4:15 pm when the interrogations ended, Artichoke techniques were applied. These techniques, which followed a previously agreed-upon plan, were in three stages:
A. A fantasy which ______. Results during this phase were good and subject had no control. Time approximately 15-20 minutes. B. A fantasy in which _____. Results were again very good. Time approximately 40-45 minutes. C. Following development of the fantasies as noted above, the subject was more or less directly interrogated by _____, and ____ introduced as _____. Results only fair, although subject had little control. Time approximately 15 minutes. Immediately following the conclusion of the Artichoke treatments, a general conference was held with all hands present. It was agreed at this time that further Artichoke treatments were unnecessary, that results were as conclusive .. that in view of the subject's importance, additional work with chemicals or with the H technique might possibly antagonize the subject, hence would be unwarranted and unwise. Following the conclusion of the general discussion all technical apparatus was removed from the premises, and all participating personnel with the exception of _____ left the area after the ____ had checked the subject. On Sunday 23 January between approximately twelve noon and l:30 pm, the _____ returned to the Safe House and again re-examined the physical and mental condition of the subject. At this time the subject reported he had slept fairly well but he had a persistent headache. The _____ pointed out that the headache was a natural consequence of the "examination" and it would gradually disappear. In addition the ____ wrote a prescription which was to be picked up in another name for future use by the subject as a general sedative. At 1:50 pm approximately _____ left the Safe House and the subject was turned over for handling to Case Officers of his participating Division.
CONCLUSIONS: In the opinion of the Artichoke Team the operation was profitable and successful. In this case the subject was aware that he had been given certain types of solutions but as to what he had been given or amounts given, he had no knowledge. Checks were made by ___ and later ____ and apparently indicated that the subject, although not having specific amnesia for the Artichoke treatment, nevertheless was completely confused and his memory was vague and faulty. This vagueness and failure of memory was intensified by the _____ explanation that the subject had been dreaming an opinion which it appeared the subject shared in part." Ross: So that's obviously operational use of sophisticated mind control amnesia inducing and false memory implanting techniques in the USA in the 1950's by the CIA. It's part of a broad program of mind control research, experimentation and operational use which included the creation of Manchurian Candidates. So this is why I say that I conclude that it's an established fact that the CIA and the military have been creating Manchurian Candidates for operational use since World War II at least into the 1950's, and that it's not plausible denial in my mind to claim that it all stopped in 1973.
How did this whole network get constructed, and how does it work and how is it supported? I think that the Intelligence Community itself is a polyfragmented entity with Dissociative Identity Disorder, and that there is no single Executive Host Function. There is no little where everybody has it all planned out and under control. That it works sort of as Neural Network with no Executive Host Function, and that these Old Boys talk to these Old Boys who know this, who don't know this, know that, it's this kind of Network Model and that's what you see on the slide. And all these slides are going to look like this. I am going to walk you now through all these interconnections in this Network as I said all of which are documented, and tell you about some of the history, and talk about some of the ethical problems that arise. As a matter of general background now, this slide is called "Funding Fronts for CIA Mind Control Research". MKULTRA, you have already seen, was from 1953 to 1963. The major funding fronts for MKULTRA were the Human Ecology Foundation that Carl Rogers was on the Board of; the Josiah Macey Jr. Foundation, and the Geshickter Fund. Charles Geshickter was one of the MKULTRA contractors himself.
So what happened was the CIA would have its budget who would pop money over to the Human Ecology Foundation ... HEF would put out a call for grants and people would then submit applications. So it looks like a normal funding foundation, and some people were unwitting and just thought they were applying for a grant, and other people knew perfectly well there was a front, the technical terms for these kinds of funds was a "Cutout". HEF, Josiah Macey Jr. and Geshickter were CIA cutouts. This Geshickter Fund was interesting. One of the MKULTRA projects that they funded was the construction of the Gorman Annex at the George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C. You have to remember that the military and the CIA are federal bureaucracies. You anticipate the behaviour of federal bureaucracies in general when you are looking into their history and operations. So what they did was through MKULTRA they funded to Geshickter who then funded out to the contractor money to build the Gorman Annex as an addition to the hospital. Since this was money coming from a private foundation, it generated matching funds from another sector of the federal government. So the CIA got to double its budget by sucking its money out of unwitting civilian areas of the federal purse.
What was the Gorman Annex for? It was for mind control experimentation on terminal cancer patients. Three career officers, CIA biochemists, were employed at the Gorman Annex under full cover. This is not completely above board and ethical behaviour. So Carl Rogers who is on the board of the Human Ecology Foundation is himself an MKULTRA contractor and his specific projects have got this MKULTRA grant application ... I've got him on the Board of the HEF, I've got the description of his project that was funded through MKULTRA, and I've got the publication flowing from the project that exactly matches the grant application, and in the published paper, he acknowledges funding from the Human Ecology Foundation. So it's a completely documented closed loop.
MKULTRA connects itself up to Allen Dulles which connects us back to Human Ecology over to Harold Wolff and back to Allen Dulles. How does that work? Allen Dulles was the Director of the CIA from 1953 to 1961. He has the longest-running tenure as DCIA-Director of Central Intelligency Agency. In World War II he was employed by the OSS - Offices of Strategic Services - which is the pre-cursor of the CIA which was run by a guy called Wild Bill Donovan. He was stationed in Switzerland and was heavily involved in, obviously since the enemy was the Germans and the allies were the Russians, in the War he was supposed to be working with the Russians against the Germans which he did. However, when you read the history of the OSS in World War II, in the last years of the War, the Cold War was already being deliberately planned out and set up by the Intelligence Agencies, and it was already apparent to the Intelligence Agencies that things were going to flip - that Germany would become the Allies an d Russia would become the enemy. There was an awful lot of jockeying about whether the Germans were going to surrender in North Italy before the Russians got to Yugoslavia - so there were now negotiations with the Germans - because if they agreed to surrender early - before the Russians got there - then there would be such-and-such a payoff which would secure the area for the Allies so they wouldn't be taken over by the Russians.
There was all this jockeying going on, all this intrigue, communications between the OSS and some of Hitler's generals. The arch-enemy spymaster, who Allen Dulles was fighting against was Reinhard Gehlen who was head of German Intelligence in the Eastern Front, which means Russia. At the end of World War II, Allen Dulles recruited Reinhard Gehlen to become the Head of that Division of the CIA's operations against Russia. This is a totally established fact. Harold Wolff who was the Head of the Human Ecology Foundation, was a neurologist at Cornell. When Allen Dulles' son received a head wound in the Korean War, he was brought back to the USA and treated by Harold Wolff. You start to get a feel for why I call this an Old Boys' Network. Let's come down here to MKULTRA-we're over at hallucinogens. A lot of MKULTRA subprojects had to with funding LSD and other hallucinogens. A person who did a lot of hallucinogen research and published a lot of hallucinogen research was Daniel Friedman. Hallucinogen research also connects us down to Loretta Bender. Loretta Bender is the much-revered author of "The Bender Gestalt". Now look at these three names: Loretta Bender, Paul Hawk and Ewen Cameron. You will see that each of these names (they are all supposed to connect to the American Journal of Psychiatry obituaries). Ewen Cameron, Paul Hawk and Loretta had their obituaries in the American Journal of Psychiatry.
Allen Dulles did hallucinogen research in New York for the military, and it had one unfortunate side effect - he killed Harold Blauer(sp) a tennis pro, in 1953, with an injection of Army mescaline and the family was eventually compensated for that. He's big-time connected into all the hallucinogen research by the military, CIA, and he's at many different CIA-sponsored conferences. Ewen Cameron, former Head of the Quebec Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the World Psychiatric Association - in fact, the founder of the World Psychiatric Association - and also one-time President of the Association for Biological Psychiatry. As politically connected a guy as ever existed in the entire field of psychiatry in the 20th Century, with his obituary in the American Journal of Psychiatry, funded through MKULTRA and Human Ecology Foundation, did LSD and other hallucinogen research funded by Canadian military and the CIA and was successfully sued (he had already died) - the CIA settled out of court actually - it wasn't a successful suit technically - with eight of his patients who had been victims of experimentation that was first funded directly by the CIA through the Human Ecology Foundation and then through the Canadian government. One of his papers, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry is on Psychic Driving, another is on Production of Differential Amnesia in Schizophrenia.
Let's look at the network for both the creation of Manchurian Candidates and the denial of the existence of Manchurian Candidates. How's that structured? You would think it might be logical to have a disinformation program in place. Like any complex system, it's sort of arbitrary where you enter the system. Let's enter at MKULTRA which we saw is connected to Bluebird and Artichoke - both of those are connected to the CIA. The CIA is highly connected to the military intelligence structurally (committees, cross-references, cooperation in many of these documented mind control research projects). In the Senate Committee Hearings in the 1970's on MKULTRA, John Gittinger who was the head Ph.D. psychologist in MKULTRA testified that the creation of Manchurian Candidates and the movie, The Manchurian Candidate, which were referred to in his testimony, were just fiction, that's ridiculous, and that had never been done. But we see that MKULTRA, on which he was the lead psychologist, was actually an administrative rollover from Bluebird and Artichoke-we have just read material in which they are explicitly describing clear creation of Manchurian Candidates so it's not possible that he didn't know that.
The options here are either he was so out of it that he didn't realize that was Manchurian Candidates that were being created there, or he was somehow administratively out of the loop and never even looked at the Bluebird and Artichoke documents which is fairly unbelievable, or it is deliberate disinformation. Let's go from the CIA here over to military intelligence over to Estabrooks. We've got Estabrooks actually creating Manchurian Candidates. So that's Manchurian Candidate creation which goes back to Bluebird and Artichoke. We've got that loop already discussed.
Let's hop from CIA to Martin Orne. Well, we saw in the original list of MKULTRA consultants that Martin Orne was funded through that, and had top-secret clearance. When you look at Martin Orne's C.V.-he lists in his C.V. numerous military intelligence funding sources (virtually all branches of the military) and he, in his publications, cites funding by Air Force, Army (I am pretty sure), Office of Naval Research, and Human Ecology. A reliable source informed me that he also consulted with the National Security Agency. He basically has consulted with all branches of the military intelligence and civilian intelligence network. He also has taken the position, since at least 1984 in public, that MPD is almost al ways an iatrogenic artifact . He has debated this vociferously at the APA annual from 1988 on, and has published a large discussion and commentary on this in the International Journal of Clinical Experimental Hypnosis. His basic position is that MPD is created by the therapist.
Now why would Martin Orne think this, and believe this, when he is totally connected into military intelligence? He is one of the leading experts in hypnosis, he is a friend and correspondent of and has been edited by and he references G.H. Estabrooks who was also one of the leading hypnosis experts at the same time, who was also tightly tied into military intelligence-and Estabrooks knows those other people like Milton Erickson and Hilgaard(sp) who are all totally interconnected by their common work and references. Well, Martin Orne might believe that all the civilian DID cases are actually iatrogenic DID because that is the universe he has grown up in. He can't step outside his own knowledge of the creation of Manchurian Candidates by the military to conceive of the idea that it might arise naturalistically.
Where does that take us down to? That takes us down to Manchurian Candidate Denial. That is done specifically by Richard Ofshe, who is a Scientific Advisory Board member of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. In his book, "Making Monsters" where he ridicules me as a CIA conspiracy nut who believes that the CIA has been creating MPD (which in fact is a documented fact). Let's skip back to here. We're at the CIA and we're at MKULTRA, we're missing another connection here. It should go MKULTRA to Joly West, but ... the CIA connects to Joly West because he was funded under MKULTRA to study the psychobiology of dissociation. He will probably go down in history as the only person to kill an elephant at Oklahoma City Zoo with LSD. Well, Joly West is going to show up on a bunch of subsequent slides. What we're looking at is two-dimensional slices of a three- or end dimensional space. So you are going to see Joly West connect out to here, and off the screen, and up and down and around the back of the screen, and so on. One place that he connects if from here to here. Now, where did Joly West start off in his professional career? He started off as a Top Secret cleared guy for the Air Force who interviewed the American pilots who came back from Korea having been captured and brainwashed by the Communist Chinese.
Now why do I have Johns Hopkins connected to MKULTRA? Because a prior Chairman of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins named James Whitehorn was on the Advisory Board of the Human Ecology Foundation. He had Top Secret Clearance and was Witting. The Human Ecology Foundation was actually a funding front for MKULTRA. So one of his immediate predecessors was directly in network with Top Secret Clearance. The research in his c.v. - and I haven't actually got the papers out and read it - that he did in the military doesn't look like mind control research. But this is the network for the creation and the denial of the creation of the Manchurian Candidate.
Let's take a look at the relations between the Cult Awareness Network and the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board.
CAN means the Cult Awareness Network, CIA means the Central Intelligence Agency, and FMSF means the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. Joly West is on the Boards of CAN and FMSF and is connected to the CIA. Margaret Singer is connected to Joly West and Richard Ofshe. Margaret Singer and Joly West are on the Board of CAN and Richard Ofshe is on the Board of FMSF. Joly West and Margaret Singer worked for Air Force Intelligence talking to those downed American pilots who were actually DDNOS level Manchurian Candidates. Leo Ryan, and we're going to hear a bunch about Jonestown in a minute, is the Congressman who was killed at the airport in Jonestown at the same time as the mass suicide there, which was not actually a suicide. His daughter, Patricia Ryan, is very active in CAN and recently received a Leo Ryan Award, so Leo Ryan connects to Jonestown, Jonestown connects up to the CIA through that loop because CAN is interested in destructive cults and coercive persuasion, and I am going to show you on subsequent slides the connections between Jonestown and the CIA. Jonestown connects down to obviously expertise in cult coercive persuasion techniques. Jim Jones was a big expert. That takes us back up to Joly West, Margaret Singer, Richard Ofshe, Air Force Intelligence, the CIA.
So all this interconnects here. Who is this guy Robert Heath? Well, we are going to talk more on him later. My secretary has actually interviewed him, and I might go down and interview him myself at Tulane in New Orleans. He did brain electro implant research for the CIA and he would put brain electrodes in human brains for non-therapeutic purposes, and he would pour in psyllicibin(sp), mescaline, LSD, and other chemicals to see what would go tingle-tingle in the electrodes. And I will tell you more about that. He's funded by the CIA and the military. In one of his papers, he thanks Harold Lief for referring in one of his brain electrode implant research subjects. Harold Lief is on the Advisory Board of the FMSF, and in fact, was personal psychiatrist to the Freyd family. So all these guys know each other. I'm just giving you kind of a sketch of how this thing is constructed.
This is the connections between Jonestown and the CIA. This is based on references. Now according to this book, "Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment?" by Michael Myers, according to him, Jonestown was a CIA medical experiment. It was a mind control research site. So that seems preposterous and impossible to believe. What data and circumstantial evidence add up to that conclusion? Well, we know that Leo Ryan was connected to the CIA. How do we know that? Well, let's take a look over here in our package. Here we have a letter from the Deputy Director of the CIA dated 18 October 1978. To Honorable Leo Ryan, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C.: "Dear Mr. Ryan: Thank you for your letter of 27 September to Admiral Turner requesting confirmation or denial of the fact that the CIA experiments using prisoners at the California Medical Facility at Vacaville. MK Search Site Principal Investigator, James Hamilton.
It is true that CIA sponsored tests involving volunteer inmates was conducted at that facility. The project was completed in 1968. A report setting forth the details of that testing has been released to the authorities at Vacaville and to the public. It is enclosed for your information and review ....... The research was related to learning enhancement using a well known hallucinogen, magnesium pemaline (Ross: which is psiler [sp] used for ADD). Your letter referred to Donald Defreeze known as Cinque and Clifford Jefferson, both of whom were inmates at Vacaville. Insofar as our reports reflect the names of the participants, there is nothing to indicate that either was in any way involved in the project. You may wish to contact the authorities at Vacaville for further information." So Leo Ryan was corresponding directly with the CIA about some of its mind control research. He was also the father of pending legislation, by which all CIA covert operations would be subject to direct Congressional oversight from a budgetary point of view.
You have to go a long way out there to get all these connections. Okay, well I'm going to tell you a bunch about Vacaville. So Leo Ryan is really pestering the CIA to get all their covert operations under direct funding oversight and budgetary control of Congress. He is bugging the CIA about their mind control research. He has found out that Donald Defreeze was at Vacaville at the same time it was a research site, we are seeing another document saying that is MKSearch and the investigator is James Hamilton, who had Top Secret Clearance. Also Leo Ryan was involved in Jones town, because he was killed at the airport. Well that's very funny. How does Leo Ryan connect down to Patty Hearst? Patty Hearst was captured by the Symbionese Liberation Army, which was headed by Donald Defreeze whose code name was Cinque. She was found guilty. She was actually a Manchurian Candidate, a DDNOS level Manchurian Candidate, who was captured, if you don't remember the story, she was the daughter of William Randolph Hearst who ran the San Francisco Chronicle who was running a whole lot of critical articles about the People's Temple - Jim Jones' cult while it was still in Ukiah, California. His daughter, Patty Hearst, who was a college student, was captured by the SLA at gunpoint with submachine guns, kept locked in a closet for 42 days, and subjected to very systematic coercive, persuasive brainwashing and mind control techniques, until she adopted a new identity named "Tanya" and lost all emotional connectedness to her prior life and her parents.
She participated in the robbing of a bank and was found guilty. The Free Patty Hearst Movement was headed by Leo Ryan, who was very active in getting clemency for her from the President. How does Patty Hearst connect to Donald Defreeze? Well, he captured her. How does Donald Defreeze connect to Vacaville? Well he was at Vacaville as a prisoner. What is Vacaville? Well, let's hop over here to Joly West. That will help us to figure it out. Joly West was the expert witness in the trial for Patty Hearst. Who were the expert witnesses called to explain to the jury that Patty Hearst was actually a victim of coercive persuasion, mind control and brainwashing ... Joly West, Margaret Singer, Robert Lifton and Martin Orne. So what did Joly West have to do with Vacaville? Joly West was Head of the UCLA Violence Project which was approved by Ronald Reagan when he was Governor of California, then shut down by public protest. It was spearheaded by a number of people including some people who were very interested in the history of CIA military mind control, and have written books about it.
Well the UCLA Violence Project you are going to see in subsequent slides, but it included research and experimentation that was going to be done at Vacaville Prison where they had the maxi-maxi which is the maximum security place for the most freaked out behaviourally disturbed psychotic psychologically difficult inmates in the California prison system which included Donald Defreeze and Charles Manson we hear. Who is Colston Westbrook? According to a book on the Phoenix program which is the CIA's covert operation in the Vietnam War for killing 20 VC infrastructure non-military personnel headed by William Colby, future Director of the CIA. According to that book, Colston Westbrook was a CIA Psy-War expert in Vietnam who came back to the USA to Vacaville Prison under cover of the Black Cultural Association and used behavioural modification techniques on Donald Defreeze and gave him his code name Cinque, and devised the seven headed logo of the Symbionese Liberation Army.
Subsequent to this coercive persuasion work done on Donald Defreeze by this Psy-War expert employed by the CIA in Vietnam. Donald Defreeze was transferred to another location in the jail from which he very easily escaped the next day only to go capture Patty Hearst and use very systematic and sophisticated mind control techniques on her despite the fact that he was a functionally illiterate black person off the streets.
This is some general background now. There is this guy, James Frank, who won the 1925 Nobel Prize in Physics who came over to be part of the Manhattan Project which created the atomic bomb. That is sort of the precursor of the Paperclip Project, which we will get to in future slides. He recruited Lawrence Layton into the Manhattan Project so that's the connection between these people. Now we're going to go to this Layton family. There's Hugo Phillip and Anita Lee Howbwood(sp) married in Germany in 1914 and they moved to the USA. They had two daughters, Eva and Lisa. Eva doesn't really fit into the story. Eva worked for the CIA at Berkeley. The author of this "Jonestown: A CIA Medical Experiment" got all this information from the public records by just piecing it together, bit by bit by bit, and the documentation in their references is pretty solid and convincing. Eva worked for the CIA at Berkeley and her job at the library was to keep track of all the left-wing literature taken out of the library and the names of the people who took those books out and report that to the CIA. Berkeley's got a lot of top-notch people ... such as Richard Ofshe. Lisa married Lawrence Layton who was recruited for the Manhattan Project by James Frank. He later worked at Dugway Proving Ground where radiation experiments were done including release of radioactivity for wind dispersal over civilian populations. He was an expert in dispersal of biological and chemical weapons. That Dugway Proving Ground was also one o f the sites where Army LSD research was conducted.
This couple had four children - Deborah who married Phil Blaikie, Lawrence Jr., Annalisa and Thomas. These two are not so involved in the picture. Lawrence Jr. was on-site at the People's Temple, Lisa was on-site at the People's Temple in Jonestown in British Guyana, Deborah was on-site there and she was the chief financial officer for the People's Temple operation. She left Jonestown shortly before the mass suicide and went back to Georgetown, the capital of British Guyana, accompanied by the CIA Chief of Station for Georgetown. Phil Blaikie was an interesting guy with international arms sales and British Intelligence background if I remember right. This is where it really starts to get convincing and amazing. We have all heard about Jonestown. We all know that Jim Jones had this group of people and he was in Ukiah, California and then all of a sudden he moved to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana. I assume we all had the same sort of experience I had. You just sort of take that at face value. Here's this nut. He moves down to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana. But how did he ever choose this location? Who scouted it out? What about the logistics of getting all the lumber, all the oil drums, all the everything down to the middle of the jungle in British Guyana? You have to build an airport, you have to transport ... this is a huge, huge project. Well, it turns out this wasn't just jungle before the People's Temple arrived.
It was the Shalom Project from 1973 to 1975 and Phil Blaikie oversaw the engineering development of the site in its transition from the Shalom Project to the People's Temple. What was the Shalom Project? It was a CIA operation for training black mercenary guerrillas for operations in Angola. This was a CIA training site. This was not a random, unconnected site. That's just some general background. We're going to pick up Jonestown as we walk along here through these crystal clear slides. Okay, we heard part of the story. Here's J. Edgar Hoover, he's corresponded with Estabrooks who was creating Manchurian Candidates, Patty Hearst is a Manchurian Candidate, her identity of Tanya is deliberately programmed in by Donald Defreeze who is in Vacaville State Prison which was an MKSearch site which is also a site for the UCLA Violence Project, Vacaville is a CIA research site, Patty Hearst is connected down to Joly West who is her expert witness in her trial who says in effect she is a Manchurian Candidate, DDNOS level.
Well, Jim Jones was a good PR guy. When Patty Hearst was kidnapped he offered William Randolph Hearst a program to set up a collection/donation of money to pay the ransom to the SLA. And the SLA was demanding something like $170 million from Hearst for the release of Patty Hearst. Jim Jones offered to set up this fund, but Hearst said no. The next outcome was that the SLA also wanted food donated to poor people that they said they were representing in a revolution. So a committee was set up to do food distribution, financed by William Randolph Hearst. According to this book, the way that food distribution was done was Jim Jones got control of the mechanisms and he brought people down from the People's Temple down to be the homeless and poor people who received the food and the same food was distributed around the network six times, constantly being picked up by new People's Temple people, and taken back to the distribution point. So actually only one-sixth as much food was purchased as it appeared, and the rest was skimmed by the People's Temple. Russell Means was on the committee that oversaw this operation and his wife was bailed out of jail in Oregon the year before at a cost of $19,000 by Jim Jones.
We did Vacaville, MKSearch, that's all connected into Patty Hearst, Donald Defreeze, we've got that part ... MKULTRA connected to UCLA. What does MKULTRA have to do with that Sugi U2 base ... that's the U2 spy plane. Well that's according to information from JFK assassination researchers that I haven't independently confirmed, that was an MKULTRA site, Lee Harvey Oswald was stationed there. U2 was the plane that Gary Powers went down in. It was a spy plane that over-flew the Soviet Union. It was also used for surveillance of Martin Luther King ... that's an acknowledged fact. The FBI used U2 planes to keep track of him.
According to a book which is a little shaky in terms of its documentation, the people who were consulted on the mental state of Gary Powers, the pilot of the U2 that was downed included Ewen Cameron who was an MKULTRA contractor who did the experimentation on Linda McDonald who I told you about earlier. Ewen Cameron was also one of the people who went over and interviewed the Nazi war criminals at Nuremburg to do mental statuses on them. So the FBI is in there fairly tight. Let's just talk about MKULTRA, MKSearch assassination connections.
Project Paperclip and Mind Control Research - we heard about Allen Dulles already, he was the Director of the CIA before George Bush was the Director of the CIA, which in turn was before George Bush was the President. Allen Dulles is head of the CIA during MKULTRA program and obviously was aware of it and oversaw it. The CIA goes down to this Reinhard Gehlen guy who is the German spymaster who is recruited by Dulles to become our boy spying against the Russians, our enemies who were previously were our friends. Reinhard Gehlen was in effect a Nazi War Criminal. Reinhard Gehlen is in effect a Nazi War Criminal. Project Paperclip is a fully documented - one of a group of projects including Project National Interest, Project 63, Bloodstone - there is a bunch of other projects but Paperclip is the best known one.
There are several books about it. Paperclip is a project set up by CIA and military intelligence to bring Nazi war criminals into the USA through a mechanism that routed them around the State Department. State Department rules were that if you were a Nazi war criminal, you couldn't enter the USA. But there was a mad scramble at the end of World War II involving the USA, Canada, France, Britain, German and Russian governments who were all scrambling to get their hands on German scientists. There were all kinds of recruiting drives, etc. American teams would actually go into the Russian sector and go to a place where German scientists were being held, and sneak those guys out of there. It was quite an intense little party that was going on. In Project Paperclip (this is totally documented) all types of scientists were brought over to the USA. Film experts, ball bearing experts, lubricants, rockets, every aspect of science and technology of interest to the military. This is included somewhat obscure people like Werner Von Braun. Werner Von Braun was head of the rocket program. He was the guy who was in charge of the V2 rockets that were used to bomb Britain that were created for Mittelwerk(sp) ... the labour for Mittelwerk was supplied from Camp Dora(sp).
When the American troops liberated Camp Dora they found 6000 corpses on the ground. It is estimated that about 20,000 people were worked to death out of Camp Dora building the V2 rockets. Werner von Braun is documented as being on site at the Mittelwerk at least 20 times, and being at meetings of V2 oversight personnel where the use of prisoners being worked to death was discussed and condoned, and the workers would sometimes attempt to sabotage the rockets by urinating a part or tampering with the rocket.
The typical response to that was that the entire work crew would be instantly hung in their work tunnel. He was also a member of the S.S. and there is correspondence on US Space Program stationery to a journalist where Werner von Braun admits he was an SS Officer. So he was a Nazi war criminal who couldn't be brought in through a normal kind of visa process. Another person who was brought in through Paperclip or another related project was Albertus Stroekhold(sp). Albertus Stroekhold is regarded as the father of aviation medicine. There is a library named after him at Lakland(sp) Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. He was honoured by the Daughters of the American Revolution for his contributions to Aviation Medicine and the Texas State Legislature declared a one-time state memorial day named after him in, I believe, the 1960's.
Albertus Stroekhold was not a nice person. People on his own administrative level, people who reported to him and people he reported to were all tried and found guilty of war crimes at Nuremburg. He was not even interviewed by the U.S. lawyers responsible for that sector of Nuremburg. The types of experiments that these people did included things like putting people in a pressure chamber and dropping the pressure instantly to about 60,000 feet to simulate somebody being blown out of a cockpit if they were a U.S. pilot . What would happen is they would cause their faces to have excruciating pain, they would actually die or almost die. The ones who died would be taken out of the chamber, their heads would be cut open, their heads would be submerged under water, their heads would then be sliced open to determine whether there was air emboli in their cerebral arteries. Another type of experiment done by these people was an attempt to find an antidote to seawater so that downed German pilots in the North Sea could drink seawater. So these people were given forced feedings of seawater for days on end which then would be doctored with various different substances to see if any of the substances would prevent any of the subjects from dying. This is major full-scale Nazi war crime doctor stuff, and probably over 1000 of these scientists were brought to American under Project Paperclip.
Nazi war criminals were examined by a team of psychiatrists including Ewen Cameron who did LSD and mescaline research and was an MKULTRA contractor. LSD and mescaline research was also funded by MKULTRA and mescaline research was done by the Nazi war criminals in the POW camps. So Ewen Cameron probably got the bright idea of doing LSD research from the Nazi war criminals. According to this book which is not really rock solid in its documentation, he was still in network up in the early 1960's when the U2 pilot went down. So that the only people who are missing from this fully, completely documented history are the psychological warfare experts. It is not plausible that the only kind of scientists out of the full range of expertise that were not brought over were the psychological experts. A guy who was a deep-ops character in Vietnam described being out in the field and coming across US and VC personnel who were all totally wasted on some sort of hallucinogen trip. Their job was simply to extract these guys and leave the VC who were just completely out of it on the ground. He told me which specific location in the USA would be the most likely place to find some of these Paperclip psychological experts, so I am going to pursue that.
Let's just take a look at the brain electrode implant research. Now let's say it's just not believable that the CIA and the military have been creating Manchurian Candidates-it's just too much like science fiction. Well, what do we know for a fact that they have been doing? We know that they have been giving kids a few mcg. per kg. big-time street doses of LSD days, weeks and months up to years in a row. We know that they have been implanting non-therapeutic brain electrodes in children as young as 11 years old on an experimental basis, and we know they have been wiping out people's entire personal histories with 100+ ECT treatments and massive sleep inductions through drugs for no therapeutic reason whatsoever but we don't think they would go as far as creating a Manchurian Candidate. So it doesn't add up. What we know for an absolute documented fact is that they've gone way beyond monkeying around with some amnesia barriers and new identities so what's the story on brain electrode implant research?
Here's a name you might recognize. Brain electrode implant research was funded by the CIA and MKULTRA in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research. There is a lot of joint funding of various projects by Office of Naval Research and the CIA. The Office of Naval Research funded both Neale Birch and the CIA. Neale Birch published that thing by Joly West. Joly West started the UCLA Violence Project which was going to be at Vacaville which was where Donald Defreeze was. He recruited a brain electrode implant psychiatrist who was part of a brain electrode team at Harvard, Frank Ervin, to be part of the UCLA Violence Project. He denies in his chapter in the book edited by Neale Birch that there is any intention to do brain electrode implant, but the available evidence suggests that actually in fact the plan was to stick brain electrodes in some of these prisoners at Vacaville and the concept was that you would use this for tracking of their whereabouts and if they were off their circuit locations or there was a certain kind of discharge from their brain, you could then transmit a signal to them to arrest their behaviour so that they could be picked up by the police. He is also funded by Army Intelligence. Army Intelligence funded Neale Birch. Army Intelligence funded Robert Heath at Tulane who did brain electrode implant research. We saw him on the previous page. The Office of Naval Research funded Jose Delgado at Yale who did brain electrode implant research. This is the guy to whom Harold Lief sent a patient.
His experiments include sticking electrodes in brains, as I mentioned, and then pouring in different kinds of hallucinogens in order to see the effect on perception and behaviour and electrical activity in their brain. This guy, Jose Delgado, who is tightly in network, who is famous for a videotape of a bull charging at him then he pushes the transmitter box which sends a signal to the electrodes implanted in the bull's brain, and the bull turns away. He also has a series of papers which are in my Jose Delgado file where he does this kind of research on cats and he refers to the cats in which he has implanted brain electrodes that he is control ling by transmitter as "mechanical toys". By loose association, this reminds me of a book called "Man the Mechanical Misfit" written by George H. Estabrooks. He also describes a technical innovation in an 11 year old boy who had brain electrodes implanted for non therapeutic reasons. Previously you had to have wires connecting the transmitter box directly to the electrode terminals that were sticking through the skull. In this 11 year old boy, however, Jose Delgado had figured out how to have a remote transmitter without a direct wire connection. He describes pushing a button in this otherwise normal 11 year old boy's brain transmitter box and the boy starts being confused about his identity, wondering whether he is a girl and talking about wanting to marry Jose Delgado. He pushes another button, and this behaviour stops.
Another Delgado experiment is a 16 year old girl who looks maybe like a mild borderline, pre-morbidly, involves sticking these brain electrodes in and there is actually pictures in the paper that you can photocopy when you go to the medical school library, it's in a journal on the shelf-where in one picture she's got this vacant stupid grin on her face, push another button on the panel box and she is pounding the panel on the wall. So they are showing actual photographs of markedly different behavioural states-totally controlled by remote transmitter and brain electrode implants. But these guys wouldn't be using hypnosis to create Manchurian Candidates.
Martin Orne worked for MKULTRA which is connected to MKNaomi, MKNaomi was also conducted at Edgeware Arsenal where Amadeo Morazzi worked who did LSD research for the Air Force in Minnesota funded by Air Force Intelligence. Robert Heath also did Air Force research. LSD research was done by Nazi scientists and war criminals. Nazi scientists and war criminals were imported into Edgeware Arsenal frequently, and one of the people that I researched was Wagner Joreg, who is apparently the son of the Wagner Joreg(sp) who won the Nobel Prize for treating syphillis with malaria. I haven't researched that up fully but he came up to Edgeware Arsenal and I have him documented as being a German University Professor in the 1930's and 1940's showing up at Edgeware Arsenal and publishing research on antidotes to chemical warfare weapons and saying that he regrets the extremely long period of time in which it was impossible to publish his research data. So he did this research at Edgeware Arsenal which overlaps with the time that Amadeo Morazzi was there who did LSD research at the University of Minnesota.
Another person who did LSD research is Paul Hawk who worked for the CIA, and is one of the inventors of the term "borderline personality disorder". So this is a little bit hokey this one. But it just shows you - the theme here is not that there is a military intelligence conspiracy to cover up Manchurian Candidate creation with the myth of borderline personality disorder. The point now is a more of a global general metapoint which is this whole network of old boys in psychiatry and psychology who were covertly funded for part of the military and CIA intelligence mind control network are very influential in the history of psychiatry in a kind of nebulous fashion that just permeates the whole field. It isn't part of the sort of one-to-one correspondences that I have been showing before. It's a matter of the whole mindset of psychiatry - how we think about borderlines, how we think about temporal lobe epilepsy, what are we going to react to MPD like? Well we are going to react to MP D like - it' a little bit more vague, a little bit more global, it's a little bit more general - but the point is that the history of psychiatry in the second half of the twentieth century is undoubtedly been strongly skewed-not by an agenda that has to do with academic research, not by the best interest of clients, not by ethical psychiatry, but by an Intelligence agenda. My beef is not with the intelligence community or the CIA.
It's with the psychiatrists and the psychologists who created a little loophole where they can step out of normal ethical oversight, violate the Hippocratic Oath, get away with it, not talk about it, and just like the conspiracy to keep incest under the carpet, this is all conspired and kept under the carpet - not by twelve guys in a room at Langley who are doing the planning, but just by this pervasive old boys network that's keeping the mind control secret down just like it kept the incest secret down. So that's another reason why this is important, and needs to be uncovered. That's the end of the slides. Now I am going to come back to Jonestown a little bit, and fill you in on Jonestown and then I see I am way ahead of schedule which is fine because I have got a lot more to tell you, and you can ask a whole bunch of questions, and we can have a discussion.
According to this Jonestown book - remember that there's a connection between Patty Hearst's being kidnapped by Donald Defreeze who is mind controlled by Colston Westbrook who is a CIA psy-war expert and then there is the food relief program for the ransom by Jim Jones who is being hassled by William Randolph Hearst newspaper that ties into Russell Means being on the Board. Well according to a person who survived the White Night at Jonestown, Patty Hearst's boyfriend, Steven Weed, was onsite at the People's Temple at Ukiah, California and observed talking to Jim Jones three months before the kidnapping. If that is true, then that just blows the coincidence conspiracy theory out of the water. It is too much not to be all connected up. According to the book there is pretty solid documentation to prove that Jim Jones was recruited by the CIA way back in the 1950's and he was a coercive persuasion brainwashing expert who had some Churches in Cincinatti then moved out to California.
He specialize in coercive persuasion on Blacks and Native Americans, almost all of the people at Jonestown were not white except for the elite who survived and he was on-site at two South American countries - I think Brazil and British Guyana as a CIA undercover operative doing typical CIA operations as part of government overthrow both by stirring up left wing factions, stirring up labour, distributing leaflets and so on. So he was actually part of standard CIA operations going way back to the 1950's. The evidence in favour of it actually being a drug experiment is pretty weak. He says there was Drug A, Drug B and placebo and the point of the experiment was do either of the active drugs enhance the voluntary completed suicide rate of the brainwashed subjects. But he doesn't really provide any documentation to support that. He just sort of pulls that out of nowhere. So that's not very plausible. Also he talks about MKULTRA in a non-scholarly way because MKULTRA had already stopped. So it wasn't technically an MKULTRA operation.
There's a lot of elaborate detail in the book. For instance Jim Jones visited Castro. There are a lot of connections between the CIA being the site for Jonestown in British Guyana before they went there and all kinds of visiting back and forth from CIA stations in the capital of Guyana to the people staying at the Temple. Like I said, one of those daughters in the Layton family was escorted out of Jonestown just before White Night by the CIA station chief. It just builds up like that. There are dozens and dozens and dozens of these kind of documented pieces of information. There is a whole bunch of stuff about people who were assassinated by the People's Temple and a bunch of numerological and letter type codes about how these people were selected and how their last names mirrored the method by which they were killed. There is this whole kind of vast detail which leaves me with the next conclusion that it is beyond coincidence. Whether it is actually a medical experiment is not clearly established, except the most compelling fact is the method of delivery of the drugs. Every night every member of the Jonestown commune had to go to the kitchen and eat one cookie in front of personnel. And he says the cookie is where the drugs were delivered. I would say the next conclusion is probably more than 50/50% likely that there was some sort of heavy CIA involvement in Jonestown, whether or not it was a drug experiment.
In terms of how many people actually committed suicide, according to this book, only a minority of people committed suicide, many were shot or injected with cyanide. Only a minority actually drank it voluntarily. And when you look at the configuration of bodies on the ground, these are not people who just drank, died and fell on the ground-they are all lined up in orderly rows. There's a whole deal of how one of the Layton family members-her identity was switched with one of the other members who had lung cancer and she was actually escorted off the grounds on the grounds of having lung cancer. But there was somebody else who had lung cancer, and there is substitution of bodies, there is a claim that the guy who was identified as being Jim Jones was not actually Jim Jones. So you have to read the book to get the whole wealth of detail. I would say it is fairly compelling and persuasive. Which takes us back into how come all these guys who are connected into network tend to be experts in mind control, brainwashing, coercive persuasion, destructive cults? And why is it that destructive cults appear to specialize in creating Manchurian Candidates?
Another curious twist to the story of LSD. The people who imported LSD into North America were the CIA and the military. It didn't get here through street or drug dealer routes. It got here through official military CIA mind control mechanisms. The CIA at one time actually considered buying up the world supply of LSD from Sandoz. Like I said their alternative back-up was to contract with Elli Lily to provide a secure supply of LSD. These guys were on acid-trips in the first half of the 1950's. People who first got turned on to LSD as subjects in military experiments included Gregory Bateson, Allen Ginsburg, Ken Kesey, probably Timothy Leary. Gregory Bateson was married to Margaret Mead who was funded in her anthropological work by the CIA. There is a whole other dimension of this which is funding-this is a fact.
All of a sudden, boom, it's a narcotic and it's outlawed by FDA. What is the initial response of all these grey-haired fathers of psychiatry to making LSD an illegal substance? Protest, it's a bad thing, it's robbing us of a powerful psychotherapeutic agent, it's crippling our research efforts. These guys were hung out to dry. They were used by Intelligence Agencies to gather therapeutic use of LSD, interrogation use of LSD, psychotomenitic (sp) use of LSD and then when they had done their job, LSD was just canceled from academia. It was made illegal, and then a whole disinformation campaign went along with that whereby LSD was transformed from this wonderful therapeutic agent whose use was advocated by the major leading figures in psychiatry into this horrible thing that made children jump out of windows and bust up their chromosomes. It's called a "disinformation campaign". And it caught the leaders of psychiatry totally by surprise, which is hard to believe since psychiatrists are such clever political strategists in general. What about this whole creating Manchurian Candidate stuff which we see now for a fact has been going on since WWII? And according to Estabrooks, even back to WWI? We now have established for a proven fact that was going on during WWII, and the CIA was working on it in Artichoke and Bluebird from 1951-53. The Korean War only started in 1950.
The disinformation was that our boys went overseas there, they got shot down, they got captured, the Communist Chinese worked on them with these strange techniques we don't understand. The person who coined the term "brainwashing" in a book was Edwin Hunter. He's a career CIA officer. This was a term coined by the CIA to explain what was happening to our boys in North Korea who were making bold statements about germ warfare activities they had been involved in. Now it could be that part of the Communist brainwashing strategy was to talk to these guys about the ethical improprieties of biological warfare and bombing they actually had been doing in North Korea. In any rate, they come home as Manchurian Candidates. We are all bent out of shape because our boys are talking Communism, so we say that we have got to start studying this reactively and defensively because of what the Commies are doing. That is the disinformation myth that has been adhered to by the Military Intelligence community steadfastly from the Korean War to the present. It's totally bullshit. It's disinformation. It's not a fact. It's a made up story to cover up the fact that actually we had operational offensive use of this psychological warfare technology already in place in WWII.
Eventually we will have the names of people who were victims of experiments in the 70's and 80's and 90's. We already have the names for the 50's and 60's, not really into the 70's. We have the names of specific people who were victims of the Tuscagee Syphilis Study and the radiation experiments into the 70's. That's the way it goes. You are just pushing back that curtain and there's always this lag time because you are relying on the views of the Intelligence Community or public apathy ... "it was back in the Cold War" "it's different now" "we joined the boy scouts and we don't do that anymore". So there is always a disinformation strategy for why it happened a long time ago and we don't do it now and we are very regretful and we are so regretful that we in fact agree to compensate these victims.
In Oregon there was a prison where men were paid to be subjects to participate in radiation experiments. Their testicles had been irradiated so they would get paid a certain fee to participate in the radiation of their testicles. Special arrangements were made so Catholics couldn't participate in the study because they couldn't use birth control so they might give birth to genetically mutated children ... so it had to be only non Catholic participants. There was an extra fee, it was a little bit fatter, if you would agree to testicle biopsy to see if the radiation was dropping the sperm count. When 9 of these people pressed their case to the State Legislature in Oregon in either the late 70's or early 80's, in its magnanimity, the Legislature agreed to compensate them for a total of $3000 for all nine subjects.
That goes back to John Lilly who is tied into the LSD network who treated dolphins with LSD - he was involved in communication with dolphins - it is a documented fact they have been used to swim up to ships to blow them up - with bombs attached to the dolphins during the Vietnam War. John Lilly is tied into the LSD network and I have him attending CIA sponsored LSD symposia. He invented the flotation tank - flotation tank is in network in all the sensory deprivation stuff and mixed in with hallucinogens. He wrote a program on metaprogramming and the human computer which is an early artificial intelligence treatise that basically defines a modularity model of the human mind which is the dominant model of neuronetworks, all that area of artificial intelligence and a whole bunch of different Office of Naval Research funding. That is ongoing up to the present ... there is Office of Naval Research funding for this kind of project ... also for rat physiology research that has to do with modularity of brain functions and modularity of memory which all is directly relevant to creating Manchurian Candidates because you want to know the modular organization of the brain.
Let's look at the stages the computer is at during WWII and run up to 1996. We have to postulate that the technical advance and the increase in complexity in mind control research operations is at least somewhat parallel to the complexity of artificial intelligence, all the rest of science, etc. So if they are still doing it, it's got to be a lot more complicated.
My basic argument is that the Intelligence Community has been sold a bogus bill of goods by these guys, like G.H. Estabrooks and all his heirs down the line. It is overkill, it is unnecessary, it's ridiculous ... you can just drop it ... and there will be no operational loss. Do I know that for a fact? I haven't got the faintest idea. But that's what I propose to them-they could do their own analysis. If we are going to stop it, and let it come out to the public, that will never happen if the individual handlers and operators in the Intelligence Community are going to be nailed in public and personally responsible. So there has to be a double amnesty program ... but then there has to be financial compensation for the victims who get identified. That is less likely to happen if the compensation comes out of the Intelligence budget- therefore, it ought to come out of general Federal funds-not to reduce Intelligence funding otherwise you have set up systemic disincentive for this stuff to ever be declassified.
A report prepared by Ross & Green
1010 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 811
Washington, DC 20005
July 1993, Copyright 1993 by Ross & Green
DISCLAIMER: This text file is a partial reprint of an original copyrighted
report by Ross & Green. All of the text from pages 1 through 17 of the
original report has been reproduced exactly herein. The only information
missing is pages 18 through 23, which contained the report's bibliography
and list of experts. This file has been uploaded to CompuServe with the
sole intent of disseminating important information to the World's public,
and it was not the uploader's intent to plagiarize the original work of
Ross & Green in any way. If you distribute copies of this text file, please
leave this Disclaimer intact, so that Ross & Green receive full credit for
the contents of this document, and so interested parties may contact Ross &
Green for more information if they so desire.
As a lobbying firm concerned with the preservation and expansion of
democracy both at home and abroad, we are writing to draw your attention to
the activities of the Cult Awareness Network (CAN). The Cult Awareness
Network described itself as a "national non-profit organization founded to
educate the public about the harmful effects of mind control as used by
destructive cults." In fact, as the following evidence documents, CAN has
played a major role in propagating an atmosphere of intolerance and
violence against new, smaller, non-mainstream religions (as well as
psychological movements and political groups); moreover, it has functioned
as an indirect referral agency, facilitating "concerned" families getting
touch with individuals who can be hired to use coercion (including forcible
abductions) to remove individuals from groups of which CAN disapproves.
The influence of the Cult Awareness Network was made clear by the role it
played in influencing media coverage of the siege and subsequent massacre
of the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas earlier this year, and the role
CAN-associated "deprogrammers" played as advisors to the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the FBI during the siege.
CAN, originally called the Citizens Freedom Foundation (CFF), was founded
in 1974 by Ted Patric, who, according to Gerald Arenberg, writing in `The
Chief of Police' magazine, already had a "career of kidnapping young adults
from young and little understood churches in exchange for handsome fees
from distraught or overbearing parents" (Arenberg, 1993). Information from
a number of sources indicates that over the past 19 years, persons within
the CAN network have been involved in thousands of abductions or other
coercive actions, which the perpetrators euphemistically call
"deprogrammings." "Deprogrammers" charge between $5,000 and $20,000 for a
kidnapping. The payment is usually made in cash, so there will be no record
of the transaction (Blocksom, 1992, p. 2). According to the organization's
own figures, reported at its national conference in Los Angeles last year,
CAN-connected "deprogrammers" were involved in more than 1,800
"deprogrammings" in 1992 alone (Robertson, 1993, p. 3).
On the record, CAN condemns forcible kidnappings and maintains that it
receives no financial benefits from referring families to kidnappers.
However, John Myles Sweeney, Jr., a former national director of CAN's
predecessor, the Citizens Freedom Foundation, in a declaration dated March
17, 1992 charged:
"Because of the large amount of money they make due to referrals
received from CFF members, deprogrammers usually kick back money
to the CFF member who gave the referral... The kickbacks would
either be in cash or would be hidden in the form of a
tax-deductible "donation" to the CFF" (Sweeney, 1992, p. 1).
Former "deprogrammer" Johnathon Lee Nordquist has charged that in the
mid-eighties CAN, through Mary Krone, then CAN's director of information
and referrals, paid for the living expenses of Nordquist and his partner.
"All that I had to do... was make infrequent speeches at Cult Awareness
Network affiliate meetings and receive phone call from people who wanted to
hear negative propaganda about the Hare Krishna religion" (Nordquist, 1991,
In addition, expense reports seized by the FBI and entered as evidence in a
court case reveal that at least one "deprogrammer," convicted kidnapper
Galen Kelly, was paid a regular retainer of $1,500 a week in 1992 by the
Cult Awareness Network (U.S. vs. Smith, Kelly, Point and Moore, 1992).
CAN operates its indirect referral system in a manner intended to avoid
incurring criminal or civil liability from the activities of the
"deprogrammers" in its network. Mark Blocksom, who worked as a
"deprogrammer" from 1979 to 1989, reports:
"The standard method by which I received referrals for
involuntary deprogrammings was via phone call the "good ole boy"
network (CFF, and later, CAN members or affiliates), who would
then refer the caller to a non-CFF/non-CAN person (usually a
family member of a prior successful case), who would then call me
and arrange the deprogramming. This "cut out" system was created
to insulate CFF/CAN from legal liabilities" (Blocksom, 1992, pp.
Blocksom also reports that he often consulted with CAN officials (including
the current director, Cynthia Kisser) in the course of "deprogrammings" for
the purpose of "obtaining additional assistance, or with obtaining written
materials about a particular group" (Blocksom, 1992, p. 4). Former CFF
director Sweeney warns: "CAN still attempts to convince the public that it
is not now, nor has it ever been, connected with deprogrammers. This is an
absolute lie and should never be accepted as true" (Sweeney, 1992, p. 3).
A special report in `The Chief of Police,' the official publication of the
National Association of Chiefs of Police, notes that "During the 1970's and
`80's, mercenary deprogrammers like Patrick kidnapped hundreds of adults
from a wide spectrum of organizations including Catholic, Episcopal,
Evangelical Christian, Mormon, Amish, political and even karate classes.
While the deprogrammers celebrated their growing profits, for the victims,
it was a story of terror" (Arenberg, 1993, p. 60).
The terror includes not only the abduction itself, for the "deprogramming"
is not complete (and the victims are not released) until she or he agrees
to leave their religion or political organization. According to former
"deprogrammer" Mark Blocksom: "Some deprogrammers used techniques of sleep
and food deprivation, humiliation, ridicule, deprivation of privacy, and in
some cases, physical abuse and restraint to accomplish their goal of
altering a person' religious views" (Blocksom, 1992, p. 2).
A number of former "deprogrammers" and CAN officials have reported, in
sworn affidavits, that some of the CAN-affiliated "deprogrammers" have had
sex with individuals they held captive (Nordquist, 1991, p. 63; Sweeney,
1992, p. 2). Dr. Lowell Streiker, the former executive director of the
Freedom Counseling Center in Burlingame, California, reports that
"deprogrammer" Cliff Daniels "...said that he used the `sex thing' as a
testing board to see whether the girl was completely out of the cult. If
she consented, then he knew that she was completely out. If she did not
consent, then he knew that he had more work to do" (Streiker, 1992, p. 3).
What is remarkable, given the large number of abductions that allegedly
have been carried out by CAN-associated "deprogrammers," is how few
prosecutions--and even fewer convictions--have resulted from their
activities. This virtual immunity from legal liability has resulted in a
high level of arrogance among "deprogrammers." U.S. Attorney Lawrence
Leiser, who successfully prosecuted Galen Kelly, told the Times Herald
Record in Middletown, New York: "Mr. Kelly thinks he has the right to go
out, because someone pays him, and kidnap someone. That's incredible, and
he'd been doing it for 10 or 15 years. He admitted on the stand that he has
abducted 30 to 40 people" (Hall, 1993).
This ability to get away with breaking the law has to do with the success
CAN has had in demonizing non-mainstream religions and political
organizations, as well as the policy employed by "deprogrammers" of
involving family members in the kidnapping process, which tends to inhibit
the victim's willingness to press charges. As former "deprogrammer"
I have been arrested at least five times for kidnapping-related charges. I
have never even gone to trial in even one of these cases, due largely to
the fact that it was my policy to get the family directly involved in the
actual kidnapping. This would make it much harder for the target to want to
pursue criminal prosecution, since it would mean they would also have to
prosecute a family member (Blocksom, 1992, p. 3).
Despite these precautions, the last year has seen a few cracks in the wall
of virtual immunity which has surrounded CAN-associated "deprogrammers." On
May 27, 1993 Galen Kelly--- chief of security at the CAN convention in
November 1990--was convicted for kidnapping a Washington, D.C. woman in May
1992 (he is still awaiting sentencing). Another well known "deprogrammer,"
Randall Burkey, was convicted on similar charges in Madison, Wisconsin
earlier this year. Other CAN-connected "deprogrammers" who have recently
faced criminal charges are Joseph Szimhart and Mary Alice Chrnalogar who
were charged with kidnapping a 39-year-old mother of four in Boise, Idaho
(Robertson, 1993, p. 3), while Rick Ross, who acted as an advisor to ATF in
Waco and has boasted of more than 200 "deprogrammings," was arrested at the
end of June on charges of kidnapping an illegal imprisonment of a Kirkland,
Washington teenager in 1991 (Holt, 1993).
PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PSYCHIATRISTS
A handful of psychologists, psychiatrists and sociologists, some of whom
serve on CAN's board of advisors, provide pseudo-scientific cover for these
activities. They give talks at CAN events, write articles, mostly in their
own publication, Cultic Studies Journal, and provide quotes to the media
when a "cult expert" is needed. Many of these individuals also earn money
testifying as "expert witnesses" in kidnapping cases, litigation in which
disaffected ex-members are suing their former group or group leaders, and
conservatorship cases in which parents are seeding legal and financial
control of grown children who have joined so-called "cults."
Among these individuals, the two most high-profile are psychiatrist Louis
Jolyon "Jolly" West, chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and
Biobehaviorial Sciences at UCLA's School of Medicine, and Margaret Singer,
a clinical psychologist with a private practice in Berkeley, California and
a former adjunct professor in the Department of Psychology at the
University of California at Berkeley.
West currently serves on the advisory board of CAN and a similar group
called the American Family Foundation. He has been a keynote speaker at CAN
conferences for more than 15 years. In a 1983 speech to a CFF convention,
West called for the development of a "medical model" for the elimination of
what he considered "fake" religions.
A good approach if you were interested in curing a cancer is to find a
chemical that kills the malignant cells and spares those that are healthy.
What would be the effect of a device or technique which, when applied by
society to any organization calling itself religious, would have no
untoward effect upon bona fide religions, but would be deadly to the fakes?
...Malignant cells or fake religions wouldn't survive it. Healthy cells
or bona fide religions and altruistic organizations would not be harmed
While West today purports to be repulsed by the "mind control" and
"brainwashing" supposedly practiced by some of the new religions ("cults"),
in the 1950s and `60s he was involved, through the CIA-funded Geschickter
Fund for Medical Research, in experiments employing LSD as a means of mind
control. During these experiments the CIA used ethnic and racial minorities
as human guinea pigs. At the Lexington, Kentucky federal prison, for
example, African Americans were singled out and used as test subjects for
various mind control experiments (Citizens Commission on Human Rights,
Questioned about his relationship with CIA "mind control" expert Dr. Sydney
Gottlieb, in 1977 West told the New York Times: "As far as the Geschickter
Fund was concerned, what Dr. Gottlieb told me was that he was an employee
of the CIA and that they had an interest in this problem [the area of LSD
research], which I could see they did and possibly should have at that
time" (Horrock, 1977).
After the riots in Watts in 1965, West, then head of the Neuropsychiatric
Institute (NPI) at UCLA, was an outspoken proponent of the view that
violence was tied to genetic factors, and that those most prone to violence
were young Black urban males. West and his associates at NPI recommended
that some violent offenders could be treated by psychosurgery and chemical
castration through the use of cyproterone acetate (West, 1972).
West's advocacy of chemical castration--this time on prisoners and
"appropriate non-Institutionalized clinical subjects" (Restak,
1975)--surfaced again when he proposed the establishment of a Center for
the Study and Reduction of Violence; based on the premise that violence is
caused primarily by genetic or chemical factors, the Center would conduct
various chemical and biosurgical experiments. In may respects the Center
prefigured the Youth Violence Initiative recently proposed by the National
Institute of Mental Health.
Nearly all of the studies West had in mind for the Center involved women,
minority groups--of the two high schools he proposed for violence studies,
one was in a Black community and one in a Chicano area (West
1972)--prisoners or others who couldn't defend themselves, such as autistic
children and the mentally retarded. Examples of the treatments proposed by
West at this time included psychosurgery, "curing" hyperactive children
with unproven drugs, and implanting electronic monitoring or homing devices
into the brain (California State Senate Health and Welfare Committee
Transcript, 1973). Funding for the Center was opposed in a series of
protests in California in 1974; they succeeded not only in stopping the
Center, but in getting federal and state funds for the NPI reduced. In 1989
West resigned as director of the Neuropsychiatric Institute after the LA
Weekly published an expose of financial wrongdoings in relation to research
grants he and his staff had obtained from the National Institute of Mental
Health (Shae, 1988).
The principle psychologist identified with CAN is Margaret Singer. Unlike
West, who is a fixture of the academic psychology establishment, Singer has
never held a full-time, tenure-track position; in the words of her attorney
Michael Flomenhaft, she "derives a substantial portion of her income from
consultancies and work as an expert witness based on specialized knowledge
in the area of social influence" (Singer vs. APA, 1992).
Singer is suing the American Psychological Association for $125 million,
claiming that the Association's refusal to endorse her views on so-called
mind-control and "brainwashing" have caused "injury to her business and
professional reputation" and caused her "mental anguish and distress"
(Singer vs. APA, 1992).
The Singer suit (which she filed with Berkeley sociologist Richard Ofshe in
August of 1992) is instructive both in revealing where CAN-associated
psychologists and psychiatrists stand in relation to the psychological
mainstream, and in clarifying how sharply psychological professionals
differ over concepts such as "cults," "brainwashing" and "coercive
persuasion," which CAN uses to rationalize its activities.
Singer's suit was filed under provisions of the Racketeer Influenced and
Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). In it she contends that the APA and
several of its leaders and members have engaged in a "pattern of
racketeering activity" designed to ruin her career as an "expert witness."
The only concrete evidence offered to prove the alleged harm to her career
is a ruling by a judge disqualifying Singer as an expert witness in a case
in which an ex-adherent of the International Society for Krishna
Consciousness was suing the organization for "false imprisonment" despite
the plaintiff's admission that she was never physically restrained,
confined or threatened by the Society for Krishna Consciousness and despite
further admission on the stand that she adopted Krishna Consciousness
following a genuine religious conversion.
In disqualifying Singer, who was called in to testify that the plaintiff
had been a victim of "brainwashing," Judge Jensen explained:
"Although the record before the Court is replete with
declarations, affidavits and letters from reputable psychologists
and sociologists who concur with the thought reform theories
propounded by Dr. Singer and Dr. Ofshe, the government has
submitted an equal number of declarations, affidavits and letters
from reputable psychologists and sociologists who disagree with
their theories...A more significant barometer of prevailing views
within the scientific community is provided by professional
organizations such as the American Psychological Association
("APA") and the American Sociological Association ("ASA"). The
evidence before the Court, which is detailed below, shows that
neither the APA nor the ASA has endorsed the views of Dr. Singer
and Dr. Ofshe on thought reform...At best, the evidence
establishes that psychiatrists, psychologists and sociologists
disagree as to whether or not there is agreement regarding the
Singer-Ofshe thesis. The Court therefore excludes defendants'
proffered testimony "(U.S. vs. Fishman, 1989).
While Singer's testimony had been accepted at numerous trials before and
since, the Jensen ruling has been used as a precedent in subsequent cases
in which Singer and other CAN allies were called in as expert witnesses.
The dispute between Singer and the APA leadership goes back at least seven
years. In 1986, at Singer's initiative, the APA's Board of Social And
Ethical Responsibility for Psychology (BSERP) set up a Task Force on
Deceptive and Indirect Methods of Persuasion and Control which was headed
up by Singer. The 69-page report produced by the Task Force openly
attempted to make CAN's definitions of "cults," "brainwashing," etc.
official APA usage. The APA's rejection of the report, dated May 1987, read
"BSERP...is unable to accept the report of the Task Force. In
general, the report lacks the scientific rigor and evenhanded
critical approach necessary for APA imprimatur. The report was
carefully reviewed by two external experts and two members of the
Board. They independently agreed on the significant deficiencies
in the report...The Board cautions the Task Force members against
using their past appointment to imply BSERP or APA support or
approval of the positions advocated in the report. BSERP requests
that Task Force members not distribute or publicize the report
without indicating that the report was unacceptable to the Board.
Finally, after much consideration, BSERP does not believe that we
have sufficient information available to guide us in taking a
position on this issue" (BSERP, 1987).
At dispute in the Task Force report--and within the psychological community
before and since--are the underlying concepts justifying CAN's activities.
The term "brainwashing," for example, was coined by Edward Hunter, a CIA
propagandist who worked under cover as a journalist (Marks, 1991). In the
early fifties Hunter used the term to explain communist influence over
American POWs in Korea and western civilian prisoners in Communist China
(Hunter, 1953). Hunter defines the result of "brainwashing" as changing "a
mind radically so that its owner becomes a living puppet--a human robot"
(Hunter, 1956, p. 309).
Robert Lifton, in Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (1961), one
of the pioneering scholarly works in the field, writes:
Behind this web of semantic (and more than semantic) confusion
lies an image if "brainwashing" as a n all-powerful,
irresistible, unfathomable, and magical method of achieving total
control over the human mind. It is of course none of these
things and this loose usage makes the word a rallying point for
fear, resentment, urges toward submission, justification for
failure, irresponsible accusation, and for a wide gamut of
emotional extremism. One may justly conclude that the term has a
far from precise meaning and a questionable usefulness (Lifton,
Singer maintains that the theory of "brainwashing" upon which her "expert
witness" career depends is based on studies conducted on repatriated
prisoners after the Korean War, as well as the Russian purge trials of the
1930s and the "revolutionary universities" of the People's Republic of
However, examination of the facts by mainstream scholars contradict her
arguments. A total of 7,190 American servicemen were captured during the
Korean War. Of that number only 21 declined to return to the United States.
Of those who returned only 14 were ever court-martialed on the grounds of
"going-over" to the enemy and only 11 convictions were obtained. Thus
Singer's contention that communist "brainwashing" succeeded on a large
scale just doesn't hold up (Secretary of Defense's Advisory Committee on
Prisoners of War, 1955, pp. 78-81).
Furthermore, of the POWs who did make pro-communist statements during the
war, most had not changed their ideological framework, i.e., "converted" to
communism at all; they were speaking in the shadow of incarceration and
physical maltreatment, rather than as the result of any sort of exotic
psychotechnology. Thus Lunde and Wilson conclude in "Brainwashing as a
Defense to Criminal Liability: Patty Hearst Revisited:
"[T]he much-ballyhooed Communist program of `brainwashing' was
really more an intensive indoctrination program in combination
with very heavy-handed techniques of undermining the social
structure of the prisoner group, thereby eliciting collaboration
that in most cases was not based on ideological change of any
sort "(Lunde and Wilson, 1977, p. 348).
Finally, the handful of Americans who actually did go over to the communist
side during the Korean War have been shown to have already been predisposed
to communist politics when they were drafted (Schein, 1961, pp. 104-110;
Lifton, 1961, pp. 117-132, 207-222).
Unlike Singer and other CAN "expert witnesses," the overwhelming majority
of scholars have rejected the attempt to extend the experiences of Korean
POWs to the practices of new religious movements. ("absurd to compare this
[recruiting practice of new religions] to the fear of death in prisoners
held by the Chinese and North Koreans" (James, 1986, pp. 241, 254); the
comparison "cannot be taken seriously" (Barker, 1984, p. 134); the "model
of the Chinese prisoner of war camp...is highly deficient since members of
the religious movements are not abducted or physically detained" (Saliba,
1987); a "far-fetched comparison" (Anthony and Robbins, 1990, p. 263).)
Although the term "brainwashing" has never been accepted within the
scientific community, it has become commonplace in the media and is the
basis of a number of other concepts of significance to CAN. For example the
term "deprogramming" clearly implies that human minds can be "programmed"
like computers (or robots) in the first place--an assumption questioned in
much research (James, 1986; Saliba, 1987; Anthony and Robbins, 1990; Reich,
Moreover, the very existence of "cults" defined (vaguely) by Singer and
other CAN supporters as groups which organize through "deception" and which
practice "brainwashing" and "mind control" on their members, is disputed by
the majority of scholars, many of whom point out that the "coercive
processes" that Singer and others attribute to "cult" organizations could
be applied equally to college fraternities, Catholic orders, self-help
organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous, the armed services,
psychoanalytic training institutions, mental hospitals and conventional
childrearing practices (Lifton, 1961, pp. 141, 435-436, 451; Schein, 1961,
pp. 202, 260-261, 270-276, 281-283).
What Singer's arguments come down to is that the only conceivable way that
a sane person might choose to believe in or adhere to religious and/or
political views outside the perimeters of the mainstream is if they are
"deceived." And from this it follows that deceived or "brainwashed" people
are incapable of making sane, responsible judgments and should therefore
have their civil and Constitutional rights revoked.
But "deception" is a hopelessly subjective term. Perception and deception
are two sides of the same coin. As Judge T.S. Ellis III declared on
December 31, 1992 in regard to an unsuccessful kidnapping prosecution
brought against CAN-associated "deprogrammer" Galen Kelly, "One man's cult
is another man's community, however wacky you or I may think that is" (U.S.
vs. Smith, Kelly, Point and Moore, 1992). Who among us in a democratic
society would dare to impose his or her perception as the only true one?"
THE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS
The threat to religious freedom inherent in the pseudo- scientific theories
and language of West, Singer and other CAN-associated psychologists,
psychiatrists and sociologists is evident. That they have been used to
rationalize criminal activity is equally evident. As early as 1974 the
National council of churches warned of CFF's danger to religious liberty:
[R]eligious liberty is one of the most precious rights of humankind,
which is grossly violated by forcible abduction and protracted efforts
to change a person's religious commitments by duress. Kidnapping for
ransom is a heinous crime indeed, but kidnapping to compel religious
deconversion is equally criminal (Arenberg, 1993, p. 60).
And if the dangerous implications of applying CAN's credo to the political
arena were not already obvious, CAN's executive director, Cynthia Kisser,
made them explicit in an article entitled "Nation needs to address cults'
ever- present evils," written originally for the Los Angeles Daily News and
reprinted in a number of papers around the country during the Waco siege.
In it Kisser warned: "Cults also hurt society when their members undermine
the democratic process by voting in solid blocks [sic] or by providing free
volunteer labor to campaigns in return for favors from candidates" (Kisser,
1993). To most people this would serve as a model description of healthy
participation by an interest group or party in a representative democracy.
But apparently to CAN only groups of which it approves should be allowed to
vote in "blocks" and volunteer for political campaigns. When groups CAN
doesn't like ("cults") participate in electoral politics, it "undermines
the democratic process."
Frighteningly, the FBI appears to share this way of thinking. In 1988 and
again in 1991 the Bureau launched investigations of the New Alliance Party
(NAP), a left-wing electoral party, rationalizing this harassment by
labeling NAP a "political/cult organization" (New Alliance Party vs.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993).
Founded in 1979 and based primarily in communities of color in our
country's inner cities, over the last 14 years NAP has run candidates for
local, state and federal office in every state and received millions of
votes. In 1988 NAP's presidential candidate, Dr. Lenora Fulani, became the
first woman and the first African American presidential candidate in U.S.
history to be on the ballot in 40 states. In both campaigns Fulani
qualified for and received federal primary matching funds.
The 1988 investigation , sparked by a Phoenix, Arizona "informant of
unknown reliability," included at least 24 field offices and the national
headquarters, all of which devoted federal resources to compiling dossiers
on NAP. The investigation generated numerous communications from the FBI to
law enforcement officials around the country warning them, without cause,
that NAP members--who at the time were actively campaigning in the 1988
presidential campaign-- should be considered "armed and dangerous" (New
Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993).
The 1991 investigation was launched solely on the basis of protected First
Amendment activities and despite the fact that the FBI itself had concluded
that NAP had broken no laws. As with the earlier investigation, it was
buttressed with propaganda from a private organization with its own
political agenda, in this case the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai
B'rith. The 1991 FBI files on NAP contain an ADL "report" attacking NAP and
labeling the independent party "part Marxist sect, part therapy cult" (FBI
Airtel, July 24, 1991).
In addition, since the distribution of PRA's cult-baiting pamphlet in 1987,
publications hostile to NAP's politics-- including the Village Voice, the
Boston Phoenix, the New York Post, and various publications of the
Communist Party of the United States--have published articles which
explicitly or implicitly apply the "cult" label to NAP. In turn, some of
these articles, or references to them, have been incorporated into the FBI
files (FBI Airtel, May 1, 1988).
On June 24, 1993 Representative Don Edwards (D-CA), chairman of the
Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary
Committee set a letter to William Sessions protesting the FBI
investigations of NAP:
I am writing about the FBI's interest in the New Alliance Party (NAP).
This is the second time that the FBI's handling of a NAP matter has
raised questions about the focus and management your terrorist
program. The FBI's treatment of NAP in recent years evidences a lack
of perspective on world and national events and a continuing focus on
First Amendment activities instead of criminal conduct...The NAP
documents raise something more troubling [than wasteful carelessness]
and that is that the FBI continues to treat ideology as an indicator
of a predisposition to crime...I must request that the Bureau cease
basing investigative action on this type of predicate (Edwards, 1993).
Responding to an investigation of the ADL by the San Francisco district
attorney--which indicates that the ADL's "fact-finding" division was part
of an information-trading operation which included local police
departments, the FBI and foreign governments (most notably, the apartheid
regime in South Africa)--Edwards told the San Francisco Examiner that he
planned to investigate "whether the FBI was using private surrogates to
collect the information it cannot collect directly" (Opatrny and Winokur,
Within a month of the Waco massacre, NAP, Fulani and two members of the NAP
National Committee (Dr. Fred Newman and Dr. Rafael Mendez) filed suit in
federal court against the FBI, then-FBI director William Sessions, James
Fox, the acting director of the Bureau's New York Division, and Attorney
General Janet Reno. The lawsuit charges that the FBI's description of a
political organization as a "cult"-- or the use of such a description to
justify investigative activities, the use of force, criminal prosecution or
governmental regulation--violates the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments of
the U.S. Constitution, which respectively guarantee the right to freedom of
speech and association, freedom of assembly and due process (New Alliance
Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993).
Pointing out that the term "cult" does "not appear in any federal statute
or regulation, or in the Federal Rules of Evidence, as a predicate for
declaring a person legally incompetent, depriving a person of parental
rights, or subjecting a person to psychological warfare and the use of
deadly force by federal law enforcement authorities," the suit challenges
the appropriateness of the FBI's use of the label as a rational for
investigation (New Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation,
1993, p. 12).
Furthermore, the suit points out:
The actions taken by the defendants [the FBI, et al] against the
Branch Davidian group in Waco, Texas in February-April 1993, and the
defendants' explanations, justifications, and internal investigation
and analyses of their actions, demonstrate that [they] have created
and are further evolving a modus operandi of practices under which the
defendants do not give full recognition and respect to the
constitutional and civil rights of individuals whom defendants label
as being associated with "cults." Classifying NAP as a "political
cult" rather than acknowledging NAP as a political party, is a means
of evading the high degree of constitutional scrutiny to which
governmental interference with political activity must be subjected
(New Alliance Party vs. Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993, p. 2).
The suit ... scheduled to be heard before Judge Constance Baker Motley in
September 1993 in U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York,
point[ed] to the chilling effect that the increasing use of the "cult"
label can have on the development of new and minority political parties and
In the current climate, which defendants have helped to create, giving
a group the status of "cult" has a stigmatizing an injurious effect on
the group... in the same was as government labeling of groups as
"subversive," "totalitarian," "radical," "Black nationalist,"
"communist sympathizing" has impaired constitutionally protected
speech and association. By giving United States Government imprimatur
to an alleged status--"cult"--the defendants are facilitating actions
both by private persons and by government officials that impair the
exercise of constitutional rights (New Alliance Party vs. Federal
Bureau of Investigation, 1993, pp. 14-15).
Although the investigation of the New Alliance Party is, at this point, the
best know case of CAN language and concepts being applied to a political
organization, the emergence of this new psychological/political category
has implications that go well beyond the specifics of the NAP case to
fundamental constitutional issues of free association.
CAN's ability to influence, if only indirectly, the policies and thinking
of a federal agency is hinted at in the NAP investigations. Its ability to
influence government policy and media coverage is made all the more clear
in the events surrounding the siege and massacre at Waco.
A key link in the chain of events which led to the FBI massacre of nearly
90 people--including 24 children, 17 of them under the age of 10--outside
Waco, Texas on April 19, 1993 began over a year earlier when Rick Ross, a
CAN- affiliated "deprogrammer," allegedly began targeting the Branch
Davidian sect for potential kidnappings, to be paid for by relatives of
members of the group (Robertson, 1993, p. 1).
Ross has boasted of committing more than 200 "deprogrammings" and has a
criminal record stretching back to 1975, when he was convicted of robbing
diamonds estimated at $500,000 from a Phoenix, Arizona jewelry store (The
State of Arizona vs. Ricky Alan Ross, 1975). Ross has been praised by CAN
executive director Cynthia Kisser as being "among the half dozen best
deprogrammers in the country" (Kisser, Ross promotional material).
David Block, a Branch Davidian for five years, was, according to a sworn
affidavit by Samuel Russell (an earlier CAN target), "deprogrammed" by
Ross, Adeline Bova and CAN national spokesperson Priscilla Coates in
Coates' home in Glendale, California in the summer of 1992. During the
"deprogramming" Block "furnished Ross with information about the Branch
Davidian sect, including details of their stored weapons" (Russell, 1993).
Ross himself bragged on "Up to the Minute" on public television that long
before the raid he had "consulted with ATF agents on the Waco sect and told
them about the guns in the compound" (Robertson, 1993, p. 2). Attorney
Linda Thompson of the American Justice Foundation, who represents some of
the survivors of the massacre, maintains that "a CAN advisor to the BATF
[presumably Ross] was providing disinformation for 30 days before the
assault" (Thompson, 1993, p. 1). In the affidavits submitted to obtain a
search warrant, ATF agents used language associated with CAN, calling the
residents of the Mt. Carmel Center "a religious cult commune" (Aguilera,
On February 27, 1993, the day before the initial ATF assault on Mt. Carmel,
the Waco Tribune-Herald began a seven-part series on the Branch Davidians
entitled "The Sinful Messiah." According to its authors, Mark England and
Darlene McCormick, the piece was the result of an eight- month
investigation and interviews with "more than ten" former members of the
group. At least some of these sources were supplied by CAN. English and
McCormick quote a man "deprogrammed" by Ross "who had been with Howell
[Koresh] for at least five years"--most likely David Block. The fourth
installment in the series, published the day after the shootout, included a
sidebar entitled "Experts: Branch Davidians dangerous, destructive cult."
It quotes Ross as declaring, "The group is without doubt, without any doubt
whatsoever, a highly destructive, manipulative cult...I would liken the
group to Jim Jones." Coates calls the Branch Davidians "unsafe or
destructive." And both say that they believe David Koresh practices "mind
It is clear from the article, which was written before the ATF staged its
raid, that Ross had been agitating for the government to move against the
group. England and McCormick report in the sidebar to part four:
Ross said he believes Howell [Koresh] is prone to violence...Speaking
out and exposing Howell might bring in the authorities or in some way
help those "being held in that compound through a kind of
psychological, emotional slavery and servitude," he said.Ross said
authorities need to understand that Howell is fully capable of
violence. "You could say that it is a very dangerous group," Ross said
(England and McCormick, 1993).
Dr. James Wood, a professor of religion at Baylor University in Waco and a
resident of the city since 1955, told a reporter from the National Alliance
Newsweekly, "Before February I had never heard of them [the Branch
Davidians] being referred to as a cult." A check by the Tribune- Herald's
librarian confirmed that before the English- McCormick series, the Branch
Davidian sect--which had been in Waco since the mid-1930s--had previously
been referred to in the Tribune-Herald as a "religious group," not as a
On "Nightline" with Ted Koppel, broadcast on April 19 (the day of the
massacre), Balenda Ganem, the mother of a Davidian survivor, put forward
the claim that CAN was making "proposals" to the FBI throughout the siege:
These proposals came from Cult Awareness professionals all over the
country. They came in the form of faxes to the White House, to Janet
Reno, to William Sessions. They came in the form of registered
letters. They came in the form of live television interviews, books
being distributed from the Cult Awareness Network, from Cult Awareness
professionals, a team of them ("Nightline" transcript, April 19,
During the House Judiciary Committee hearing on "Events Surrounding the
Branch Davidian Cult Standoff in Waco, Texas" held on April 28 of this year
, both Attorney General Janet Reno and FBI Director William Sessions
said in their prepared statements that the FBI had consulted "cult experts"
in the course of the siege (Reno, 1993; Sessions, 1993). When questioned by
Representative William Hughes about whether the Bureau had consulted with
the Cult Awareness Network, neither official responded directly. When asked
the same question by a reporter from the National Alliance, however, an FBI
spokesperson answered in the affirmative.
Whatever advisory role CAN played with the ATF (and perhaps the FBI), there
is no question that CAN spokespersons (usually referred to as "national
cult experts") were given ready access to the media throughout the siege.
Marcia R. Rudlin, director of the International Cult Education Program of
the CAN-allied American Family Foundation, gave 130 interviews between
March 10 and May 13, 1993, and as the AFF's publication, The Cult Observer,
notes: "The listing [of interviews] could be multiplied many times to
account for the hundreds of interviews given by AFF-associated
professionals during the same period" (American Family Foundation, 1993).
Kisser, in her March 13 article "Nation needs to address cults'
ever-present evil," called on the government to spend money on fighting the
cults. "If we can educate about the dangers of drugs, AIDS and gangs," she
wrote, "we can provide important information about cults...[C]ults violate
constitutional rights, destroy the family and exploit the weak" (Kisser,
n April 8, 11 days before the fatal attack, CAN president Patricia Ryan
told the Houston Chronicle that "Officials should use whatever means
necessary to arrest Koresh, including lethal force." In that same article
Kisser warned that talking with Koresh was similar to talking to an insane
person. "People who are in a closed system, the cult leaders, think
differently than you and I" (Keeton and Pinkerton, 1993).
This is not the first time that CAN-associated "deprogrammers" have
apparently instigated violent law enforcement moves against a small
religious group. In 1982 Priscilla Coates, then the director of CFF, and
"deprogrammer" Galen Kelly helped set the stage for a similar raid on the
Northeast Kingdom Community at Island Pond in northern Vermont (UPI,
November 28, 1982). The supposed intent of that raid--authorized by
Vermont's attorney general and later called an illegal "fishing expedition"
by a state judge--was to rescue nearly 100 children, most of them African
American, from the compound of the small Christian commune whose adult
members were allegedly committing child abuse. In the days that followed,
the state determined that the only abuse to have occurred was the raid
itself. All the children were subsequently returned (Robertson, 1993, pp.
As is well known, things did not work out as well for the children of the
Branch Davidians. The gas which the FBI pumped into the buildings at Mt.
Carmel for six hours before the compound erupted into flame was O-
chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS), the manufacture, production, possession,
and use of which were banned during the Chemical Weapons Convention in
Paris in January of this year . More than 100 nations, including the
United States, endorsed the ban, which is awaiting ratification.
Benjamin C. Garrett, executive director of the Chemical and Biological Arms
Control Institute in Alexandria, Virginia, describes what effect it had on
the Branch Davidians trapped inside the building. "It would have panicked
the children. Their eyes would have involuntarily shut. Their skin would
have been burning. They would have been gasping for air and coughing
wildly...Eventually, they would have been overcome with vomiting in a final
hell. It would not have been pretty" (Seper, 1993).
Ironically, the justification given by Attorney General Janet Reno for
approving the pumping of CS gas into the compound was the charge of child
abuse first supplied by Rick Ross' victims. On the afternoon of the fire
Reno said, "We had information...that babies were being beaten." That
evening she told talk show host Larry King, "We were concerned for the
children because there had been reports of sexual abuse of the children."
The next day President Bill Clinton echoed this rationale, saying the
group's children "were being abused significantly, as well as being forced
to live in unsanitary and unsafe conditions." (The president failed to
mention the fact that the unsanitary and unsafe conditions were a result of
the ATF/FBI siege, nor did he explain how killing the children was the best
way to end their alleged abuse.)
At the same time that Reno and Clinton were echoing CAN allegations of
child abuse, FBI director William Sessions said his agency had "no
contemporaneous evidence of child abuse in the compound." After a nine-week
study of the 21 children released from the compound in the early stages of
the 51-day siege, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory
Services concluded, "None of the allegations [of child abuse] could be
verified. The children denied being abused in any way by any adults in the
compound...Examinations of the children produced no indication of current
or previous injuries." In response to this announcement by Texas officials,
CAN spokesperson Priscilla Coates told the Washington Post, "I know how
these types of groups work and children are always abused" (Niebuhr and
Thomas, 1993). Within a week or so after the massacre references to child
abuse by the Branch Davidians had all but disappeared from the press.
Before the ashes of Mt. Carmel had settled, CAN was busy putting its spin
on the massacre. The night of April 19 Louis "Jolly" West was a guest on
PBS's "MacNeil/Lehrer Hour," where he said of the FBI: "They knew they were
dealing with a psychopath. Nobody is more dangerous or unpredictable than a
psychopath in a trap" (West, 1993). That same night Kisser was the "expert"
guest on an ABC News special hosted by Peter Jennings, during which she
alleged that there are over 2,000 "cults" in America and warned of more
violence to come.
A similar "warning" came three days later when William Goldberg, a
CAN-affiliated psychiatric social worker in private practice in River Edge,
New Jersey, was the guest on "Informed Sources" on WNET-TV, New York City's
PBS affiliate. Over footage of surviving Branch Davidians, host Maria
Hinojosa spoke of "several hundred destructive cults here in our own
metropolitan area," but only specified one such "cult"--the New Alliance
Party. Later in the show, after Goldberg identified NAP as a "political
cult," Hinojosa claimed to have information that NAP members had been
engaged in weapons training and asked, "Could something like what happened
in Waco happen here in New York?" (Friedman, 1993). I
n the Glendale [California] News-Press, Priscilla Coates warned Americans
against "second guessing" the FBI's actions, explaining, "As a society I
don't know that we've had that much contact with sociopaths, and sociopaths
are unpredictable" (Yarborough, 1993).
At the same time CAN worked to position itself as the best defense against
the "cult" threat. In an interview with the Houston Post a few days after
the attack, Patricia Ryan urged the federal government to make more use of
CAN's "expertise," arguing that Washington has failed to study "cults,"
educate citizens about their danger or coordinate law enforcement strategy
to prosecute their crimes (Witham, 1993).
Meanwhile, CAN was attempting to move in on the lucrative business of
"deprogramming" Branch Davidian survivors. On April 23 Brett Bates, and
"exit counselor" for the Texas chapter of the Cult Awareness Network, began
meeting with the families of survivors, seeking contracts to "deprogram"
them. he was quoted in the New York Daily News: "Before they become
productive members of the prosecution, they have to realize they were
victims of mind control. They have to realize that this is not David
Koresh, the Messiah. This was someone who led a cultic group and burned
down a building with women and children." Bates told the Daily News that he
thought the Branch Davidians, locked in jail and mourning the deaths of
their husbands, wives, children and friends would be a "unique challenge"
(Hackett and Sennott, 1993).
The day after the debacle President Clinton, denying all responsibility for
the deaths and echoing CAN's line on "cults," said, "There is,
unfortunately, a rise in this sort of fanaticism all across the world, and
we may have to confront it again...I hope very much that others who will be
tempted to join cults and to become involved with people like David Koresh
will be deterred by [these] horrible scenes" (Witham, 1993).
The response from the religious and civil libertarian communities to the
government violence at Waco was swift, but sorely undercovered in the
In a letter to Jack Brooks, chairman of the House Judiciary Committee,
dated April 27, 1993, Laura Murphy Lee, director of the Washington, D.C.
office of the American Civil Liberties Union, cautioned against any "new
government authority to investigate unpopular or unusual religious groups,
without reasonable suspicion that criminal laws have been violated, in
violation of the Constitutional guarantee of the free exercise of
religion." The confrontation in Waco, she warned, "raises the specter of
unconstitutional surveillance of religious or political groups that was
widespread during the COINTELPRO-type investigations which occurred through
the mid-1970's" (Lee, 1993).
During a hearing on the events at Waco held by the House Judiciary
Committee on April 28, 1993, Rep. John Conyers (D- MI) told Attorney
The root cause of this problem was it was considered a military
operation and it wasn't. This is a profound disgrace to law
enforcement in the U.S.A. and you did the right thing by offering to
resign...I would like you to know that there is at least one member of
Congress that is not going to rationalize the death of two dozen
children...that decision that was jointly made by these agencies bears
extreme criticism (Conyers, 1993).
On April 20 Joseph Bettis, a Methodist minister an professor of religious
studies at Western Washington University, wrote to Attorney General Reno:
From the beginning, members of the Cult Awareness Network have been
involved in this tragedy. This organization is widely known for its
use of fear to foster religious bigotry. The reliance of federal
agents on information supplied by these people, as well as the whole
record of federal activity deserves your careful investigation and
public disclosure...As long as the home and church of the Branch
Davidians is not protected from invasion by the government, none of
our homes, churches, synagogues, mosques, temples, or shrines is
safe..."Cult bashing" must end, and you must take the lead (Bettis,
On April 23 Larry Shinn, vice president for academic affairs at Bucknell
University, wrote to Congressman Don Edwards, chairman of the Subcommittee
on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee:
"[M]edia, legal institutions, and law-makers too often rely on the word of
self-styled cult experts like C.A.N. (Cult Awareness Network) whose overly
negative agenda often slides into a purely anti-religious attack" (Shinn,
Dean M. Kelley, counselor on religious liberty to the National Council of
Churches, issued a statement which concluded, in part:
[W]e are confronted with the prospect of a vast military assault
worthy of the Keystone Kops directed against a relatively small and
thus far unaggressive religious band whose chief offense appears to
have been acting like a "cult," whatever that is (beyond a religious
outfit that we don't understand and don't approve of). The anti-cult
harpies have suggested an ingenious rational for this intervention: it
was designed to "rescue" the "hostages" held "captive" by Koresh
through..."mind control" (Kelley, 1993).
The association of World Academics for Religious Education issued a
statement which argued: "Had the ATF and the FBI consulted and followed the
advice of mainstream academic experts, the Waco tragedy could have been
avoided" (AWARE, 1993).
In early May a broad range of mainstream religious and civil libertarian
organizations issued a statement which read in part:
We are shocked and saddened by the recent events in Waco...Under the
religious liberty provisions of the First Amendment, the government
has no business declaring what is orthodox or heretical, or what is a
true or false religion. It should steer clear of inflammatory and
misleading labels. History teaches that today's "cults" may be
tomorrow's mainstream religions.
The statement was signed by American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A.;
American Civil Liberties Union, Washington Office; American Conference on
Religious Movements; Americans United for Separation of Church and State;
Association of Christian Schools; International Baptist Joint Committee on
Public Affairs; Church of Scientology International; Churches' Center for
Theology and Public Policy; Episcopal Church; First Liberty Institute;
General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists; Greater Grace World Outreach;
National Association of Evangelicals; National Council of Churches of
Christ; Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Washington Office; and the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
We urge you to inform yourselves, your constituents and your readers of the
activities and influence of the Cult Awareness Network. Attached you will
find a bibliography, and a list of experts on the constitutional, legal,
psychological, and religious implications of the activities of the Cult
SEE: The Anti-Cult Movement
- A.P.I. Distributors, Inc. (A Houston firm involving famous spooks Richard Secord, Thomas Clines, Ted Shackley): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Actus Technology: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Aero Associates (suspected, involved in illegal CIA foreign weapon sales): : Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- AID (Agency for International Development - shared facilities with NIA): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence America
Asia: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- American Committee for Liberation (of
): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence Cuba
- American Committee on a United
Europe: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- American Council of Churches (established by Howard Hunt): Torbitt document, Internet
Security Associates (Virginia): Jim Hougan, Spooks Anderson
- Armairco (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Arnim Proprietary, Ltd.: Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots Arthur D. Little (hires retired spooks in quantity): Jim Hougan, Spooks
AsiaFoundation: Jonathan Kwitney, The Crimes of Patriots
- Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO - as the name implies):
Mark Lane, Plausible Denial, Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Audio Intelligence Devices, Inc. (
-- associated with NIA): Jim Hougan, Spooks Ft. Lauderdale
- Australian Association for Cultural Freedom: Jonathan Kwitney, The Crimes of Patriots
- Australian Association for Cultural Freedom: Jonathan Kwitney, The Crimes of Patriots
- B.R. Fox Laboratories (B.R. Fox Company):, Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Bahamas Commonwealth Bank (Vesco/IOS company): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Ball, Janik, and Novack (apparant owners of BRS Holding Company, lawyers and key officers for Granville Road Company, both concealed names of EC Distributing): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Battelle Memorial Institute and other Battelle operations (hires retired spooks in quantity): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Bill (Slick Willy) Clinton (President, and CIA operative): The Spotlight.
- Bird Air (the famous William (Wally) Bird): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong (
local family names of good reput usurped for financial swindles and other CIA benefit): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots Hawaii
- BRS Holding Company (name on property ownership records for, and presumed covert ownership concealment tool of local construction company) This author№s research
- Bruce Campbell and Company: Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots CAN (Cult Awareness Network -- an evolution of CIA mind control MK Ultra project which, among ontherthings,works with and infiltrates legitimate church groups. Was involved in shaping early religious paths of Reverend Tim Jones of Jonestown Massacre and
- Caramar (Caribbean Marine Aero Corp.): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Castle Bank and Trust (ties to both Robert Vesco and his junior in CIA financial swindles, Nugan Hand): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- CBS (collusion with CIA to destroy Jim Garrison, access to CIA vote fixing information, pattern of CIA friendly newscasting and coverups): ??? Votescam; Interview with Jim Garrison, Playboy, others
- Central Investigative Agency, Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Century Special (controled by ICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Chalk№s International Airlines (Vesco/IOS company): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Church League of America (shares intelligence dossiers on Americans with CIA proprietaries): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Civil Air Transport: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Civilian Irregular Defense Group(s): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Civilian Military Assistance (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- CMI Investments (evolved into Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Coastal Products (subsidiary on trucks of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Cocke and Phillips International (Nugan Hand's direct link to Intel in
): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots Washington D.C.
- Committee for the Defense of National Interests: John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Committee of One Million Against the Admission of Communist China to the United Nations: John Prados, President's Secret Wars Comptrol International (Vesco/CIA/arms smuggler partners): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Computerized Thermal Imaging, Inc. (COII - New local company headed by non other than Richard Secord of Secret Team fame): Local discovery, Oregonian
- Corporate Air Services (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- COSECOIN (Corporate Security Consultants International): Jim Houghan, Spooks
- Council on Foreign Relations (CIA bedfellow or, as this work suggests, CIA controller): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Crest Detective Agency (
): Jim Hougan, Spooks Santa Monica
- Cryogenics, Inc. (controled by Robert Vesco): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration -- listed here because its leadership originally included Lou Conein, the CIA man responsible for the massive assassination program, Operation Pheonix, which allowed CIA takeover of the SE Aisian drug supply. Also inv
- Defense Services, Inc.: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Defense Systems, International (related to Defense Systems, Inc, found locally?): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Dektor Counterinteligence (Virginia): Jim Hougan, Spooks Directorate of Science and Technology (conduit for CIA work with professors, university departments, and research organizations): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence Double Day and Company (Publisher -- knoeinhly published fraudulent CIA books): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Double-Check Corporation: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Drew Pearson (reporter, regularly debriefed by CIA): Victor Marchetti, John D. Marks, The CIA And The Cult Of Intelligence
- Eagle Aviation Technology and Services (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- EATSCO (the Egyptian American Transport and Service Company): Daniel Sheenan, on the Secret Team
- EC (see also endless EC varients, PGES, Granville Road Company, Idaho Power Systems, Coastal Products, Fouch Electric, Linnco Electric, and law firm of Ball, Janik, and Novak for complete picture)
- EC Company (name on file with Corporation Commissioner for local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Constuction (name on trucks of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Distributing (name on building of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Distributing (name on corporate office of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Engineering (name on secondary buildings of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Pulp and Paper (name on secondary building of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Technical Services (name on select trucks of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- EC Voice and Data (name on select trucks of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research Edward Bennett Williams, lawyer (believed 3 & 5 "I"s founder): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Electrical Construction (alternating name in Yellow Pages for local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Electrical Contractors (alternating name in Yellow Pages for local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Electrical Contractors of Oregon (name on tax records of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Encounter (Magazine editor was CIA operative): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Energy Resources (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- ESI (Electronic Specialties, Inc. -- a Portland area firm controled by ICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks; local TV reporter doing background research on CIA proprietaries involved in PAMCO scandal
- Evergreen International Air (deleted from Victor Marchetti№s book by Government censors): Oregonian; John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Export Control Systems: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Fairfield Aviation (controled byICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Fidelity Reporting Service (covert background checks on Americans): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Fiduciary Trust Company (Stepchild of IOS): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Foreign Broadcast Informatin Service (monitors radio broadcasts, even of U.S. commercial stations): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Fouch Electric (claimed parent firm of, does business with, conceals property for, and lied to protect local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Fredrick A. Praeger (Publisher -- published CIA favorable books at agency request): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Functional Devices, Inc. (Russiaville, In.): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Fund For Peace (headed by spooks): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- GEICO (Government Employees Insurance Company - provided NIA with contributions), Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Geneva's Exchange and Investment Bank (Vesco controlled): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- George Herbert Walker Bush (President, CIA Director, and CIA suspected head of Operation Zapata Bay of Pigs and Kennedy Assassination team and South American Assassinations operating out of Houston in 1963, recieved reports from FBI regarding JFK assassin
- George L. Barnes & Associates (Los Angeles): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Gibralter Steamship Corp.: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Global Financial (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Golden West Airlines (controled by ICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Grace Capital (related to COII): Oregonian Grand Bahama Development Company (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Grandville Road Company (presumed covert operation and its evolution into unnamed Electrical Construction company): This author№s research Granville Road Company (original front name of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Gray and Company (Public Relations firm working with CIA against American Citizens -- Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Great American Banks (drug money laundering): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Gulf Stream, Ltd. (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Harper and Row, Inc. (publishers, submitted books critical of CIA to CIA for review and censorship prior to publishing): Victor Marchetti, John D. Marks, The CIA And The Cult Of Intelligence Harpoon Harry's (CIA spying on US military on R&R): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Harrison Salisbury (reporter, regularly debriefed by CIA): Victor Marchetti, John D. Marks, The CIA And The Cult Of Intelligence Harvard University№s Center for International Affairs (files contained minutes of Council on Foreign Relations meetings involving CIA operatives about CIA operations and other national security matters): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cul
- Hercules Research Corporation (METC Unit bomb development): Michael Reconoscuito, Ted L. Gunderson, others
- Hilary Rodham Clinton (CIA operative): The Spotlight
- Hill & Knowlton (Public Relations firm used for CIA disinformation campaigns against American citizens): Johan Carlisle, Public Relationships: Hill & Knowlton, Robert Gray, and the CIA, Spring 1993 issue of CAQ
- Hogan & Hartson, legal firm (Edward Bennett Williams firm): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Howard Hughes Medical Institute (involved CIA operated hospital for plastic surgury, recouperations, concealments, and other covert operations, literal and figurative, where CIA's Evergreen flew both Shaw of Iran and Howard Hughes in their last days): Jim Hughes Corporation, Glomar Explorer (CIA project to retrieve sunken Soviet nuclear missiles): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- IBM (International Business Machines -- IBM executives have stated they consider themselves an extension of the federal government, all IBM mainframes have back-door accesses available to government snooping, IBM hires large quantities of CIA and other in
- ICC (International Controls Corp -- controled by Robert Vesco): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Idaho Power Systems (subsidiary of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research Idea, Incorporated (Oliver North№s Contra assistance cover): Daniel Sheenan, on the Secret Team
- Impossible Electronic Techniques (Russiaville, In.): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Inter-American Capital (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Inter-Probe, Inc. (METC Unit bomb development): Michael Reconoscuito, Ted L. Gunderson, others
- Interarmco (International Armament Corp.): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Intercontinental Industries (controled by ICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Intermountain Aviation: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- International Bancorp, Ltd (Vesco/IOS company): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- International Business Communications (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- International Credit Bank of
(headed by WWII inteligence operative with more ties to Mossad and Bilderbergers than CIA, but worked closely with Vesco and IOS): Jim Hougan, Spooks Switzerland
- International Investigators, Inc. (started by Robert Peloquin, presumed architect of the Three I№s and Five I№s project portrayed in this book): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- International Police Services (INPOLSE -- an NIA equivalent dealing more with forgeign law enforcement agencies): Jim Hougan, Spooks International Research and Trade Corporation (later became EATSCO): Daniel Sheenan, on the Secret Team
- Intertel (International Intelligence Incorporated started by Robert Peloquin, presumed architect of the Three I№s and Five I№s project portrayed in this book), Jim Hougan, Spooks InvestairLeasing (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- IOS (Investor№s Overseas Services -- prone to investing client monies into nefarious CIA projects -- later іlootedІ by Robert Vesco): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph -- collusion with CIA to destoy South American governments and take over telecommunications systems): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Jack Anderson (history of publishing sensitive information helpful to CIA projects, close ties to Intel community): Watergate Plumbers got their start thanks to him, for instance.
- John P. Muldoon Detective Agency (Katharine Graham№s prefered agency): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Joseph Alsop (reporter, regularly debriefed by CIA): Victor Marchetti, John D. Marks, The CIA And The Cult Of Intelligence
- Joseph Z. Taylor & Associates (Drug smuggling -- documents CIA agents being busted with 50 lbs of drugs but released with drugs at CIA request): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Kenyon Electronics (controled by ICC): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Kilmory Investments, Ltd (Vesco/IOS bedfellow): Jim Hougan, Spooks
(Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars Lake Resources
- Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (Federal agency so infiltrated with retired CIA that it must truly be said that CIA has strong influance on policy and field-level law enforcement personnel): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (fraternaty of cops who have attended NIA): Daniel Sheenan, on the Secret Team
- Linking Progressive Corp., S.A. (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Linnco Electric (subsidiary of local construction company front): This author№s belief based onexperience and research
- Look Magazine (made changes in articles from republished works critical of CIA at CIA direction): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Management Safeguards, Inc. (
): Jim Hougan, Spooks New York
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies (funded by CIA and prepared CIA backed think-tank reports): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence McCord Associates (of Watergate fame, with offices in Mayland and Houston -- George Bush№s stomping grounds): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Mercantile Bank and Trust Company: Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Meridian Arms (METC Unit bomb development): Michael Reconoscuito, Ted L. Gunderson, others
- Miami Daily News (employed Nobel Prize winner and known friend of CIA, Hal Hendrix, who wrote articles using CIA supplied information): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
(used to operate a clandestine police training facility in Michigan State University ): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence South Vietnam
- Military Armaments Corp. (Ingram machine gun іMAC-10І mfg): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- MITRE Corporation (hires retired spooks in quantity): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse (operation of hit-squads to assassinate competing drug lords): Jim Hougan, Spooks National Committee for a Free Europe: VictorMarchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- National Endowment for the Preservation of Liberty (Oliver North Iran-Contra -- not truly a front, but operated for CIA benefit): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
, (NIA, now the Liddy Institute), Jim Hougan, Spooks National Intelligence Academy
- National Railways Security Bureau, Inc.: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- National Student Association (funded by CIA): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- New York Times (collusion with CIA to cover up CIA crimes, CIA freindly reporting, knowingly publishing CIA supplied articles containing slander without confirming facts): VictorMarchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence; others
- Newsweek (willingly published CIA promotional and dissinformation articles): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Norman Jaspan Associates (
- 500 employees): Jim Hougan, Spooks New York
- Norman Jaspen & Associates: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Nugan Fruit Group (Drug operations): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Nugan Hand Bank (Principle arm of CIA's Michael Hand swindles and drug operations): Jonathan Kwitney, The Crimes of Patriots
- Omni Spectra, Inc. (
, Az.): Jim Hougan, Spooks Tempe
- Orange Spot (Soft drink company used for money laundering): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Overseas Southeast Asia Supply Company (Sea Supply): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Pacific Corporation: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence; John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- PAMCO (Pacific Aircraft Maintenance Company -- a swindel of $60M in state employee retirement funds through Pacific Corp. and involving Evergreen Aviation. Site now operating as іAMCІwith considerable secrecy. A similar company has been established in Paradise Island Casino (at one time, a Vesco operation with exotic partners in organized crime, religious leaders, and presidential bedfellows -- an a casino where this author played a single $5 roulette bet and, upon wining, let it ride to win again -- a PGES (presumed covert operations as Portland General Energy Systems -- claimed to be division of Portland General Electric, denied by PGE. Vanished after discovery): This author№s belief based on experience and research
- Phoenix Financial (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Price Waterhouse (not a true front, but certified obviously fraudulent books for CIA fronts): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Project Democracy (Oliver North Iran-Contra): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Project Democracy (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- Property Resources, Ltd. (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Quantum Corp (not the hard drive maker): Jim Hougan, Spooks
: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence Americas
- Radio Free
Europe: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence Liberty
- Radio Swan: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Rapid-American Corp. (Vesco-IOS related): Jim Hougan, Spooks
(Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks Red Pearl Bay, S.A.
- Resorts International (Parent of Intertel): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Robert A. Maheu Associates (of Howard Hughes fame): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Robert R. Mullen Company (Howard Hughes funded, CIA operated with Larry O№Brien of DNC/Watergate fame involvements -- significant since the Mullen Company helped the Watergateburglers bug O№Brien№s DNC office, leading one to ask if we should believe the Santa Elena (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- SECOIN (Security Consultants International): Jim Hougan, Spooks Service Observance Bureau of The Bell System (conducts unregulated wiretaps of clients - 175,000 in
alone in one year -- shared freely with inteligence community): Jim Hougan, Spooks Manhattan SheffieldEdwards & Associates (Virginia): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Shenandoah Airleasing (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- SIONICS (Ingram machine gun developer): Jim Hougan, Spooks Soldier of Fortune (started by intel types and heavy employer of former intel types - walks the fine line of exposing and protecting intel criminal activities): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Southern Air Transport: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Spectre Security Products (
, Ca.): Jim Hougan, Spooks Orange Airways (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars St. Lucia
- Standard Commerz Bank of
(Vesco controlled): Jim Hougan, Spooks Switzerland
- Stanford Technology Trading Group International (STTGI -- Oliver North
-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars Iran
- Streamlight, Inc. (
): Jim Hougan, Spooks King of Prussia, Pa.
- Sullivan & Cromwell (legal firm repeatedly involved in CIA interests): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
Aviation (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars Summit
- The Aquatic Club: Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- The Bourbon and Beefsteak Bar and Restaurant (CIA spying on US military on R&R): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
( Broyhill Building -- houses CIA training facility): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence Arlington
- The Law Association for
Asiaand the Western Pacific: Jonathan Kwitney, The Crimes of Patriots
- The Second National Bank of Homstead (
-- drug money laundering): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots Florida
- The Texas Tavern (CIA spying on US military on R&R): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- The Washington Monthly (ex-intel agent and columnist Chritopher Pyle writes article exposing military intelligence blunders in an area CIA wishes to have more control): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- The World Finance Corporation (the largest narcotics investigation of the decade (70's) against this firm was dropped at CIA request): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Time Magazine (knowingly hired CIA operatives as reporters, edited/killed stories at CIA direction, obtained intelligence information for stories from CIA after White House had denied access): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intell
- Tom Braden, syndicated columnist and anti-JFK conspiracy author: Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Tractron (
): Jim Hougan, Spooks Vienna, Va.
- Trade Winds Motel (part of NIA, and sharing the same name as Operation
- Trade Winds, a project involving Robert Peloquin an Robert Vesco interests), Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Trident Bank (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Udall Corp. (Oliver North Iran-Contra): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- United Fruit Company (the whole reason for the war in
, and steeped in CIA activities, including leadership by John Foster Dulles, former Guatemala ): John Prados, President's Secret Wars OSS
- Unnamed Exxon subsidary (CIA merged with
company to the advantage of both): Jim Hougan, Spooks Venezuela
- USIA (United States Information Agency): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- USIA Weapon Sales (a former local
area gun store), Author, personal investigation Portland
- Vanguard Service Corporation: Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Vector, Ltd. (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Venture Fund (Vesco operation): Jim Hougan, Spooks
- Wackenhut: Jim Hougan: Jim Hougan, Spooks; Michael Riconosciuto, Wackenhut/CIA operative
- Washington Post (intel veteran and columnist Stewart Alsop and other writers profer CIA profitable articles): Victor Marchetti/John D. Marks, The CIA and The Cult of Intelligence
- Western International Ground Maintenance Organization (WIGMO): John Prados, President's Secret Wars
- William F. Buckley (former CIA agent, now media giant):
Mark Lane, Plausible Denial
- World Marine, Inc. (Douglas Schlachter and Opal document related): Johathan Kwitny, The Crimes Of Patriots
- Zapato Off-Shore Oil Company (George Bush front, Houston, 1963):
Mark Lane, Plausible Denial
- Zapato Petroleum Corp. (George Bush front, Houston,1963):
Mark Lane, Plausible Denial
- Zenith Technical Enterprizes (Bay of Pigs command central operating on the
campus): John Prados, President's Secret Wars Universityof Miami